Chapter 38 - 38 THEINTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ChapterOutline...

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38 THE INTERNAL  ENVIRONMENT Chapter Outline IMPACTS, ISSUES: TRUTH IN A TEST TUBE 38.1 GAINS AND  LOSSES IN WATER AND   SOLUTES Water, Salts, and the ECF Vertebrate Balancing Acts Water-Solute Balance in Humans A Comparative Look at Other  Vertebrates 38.2 DESERT RATS 38.3 STRUCTURE OF THE URINARY  SYSTEM Components of the System Introducing the Nephrons Overview  of Nephron Structure Blood Vessels  around Nephrons 38.4 URINE FORMATION Glomerular Filtration Tubular Reabsorption Tubular Secretion Concentrating the Urine Hormonal Controls 38.5 KIDNEY DISEASE 38.6 ACID–BASE BALANCE 38.7 HEAT GAINS AND  LOSSES How the Core Temperature Can Change Endotherm? Ectotherm? Heterotherm? 38.8 TEMPERATURE REGULATION IN  MAMMALS Responses  to Heat Stress Responses  to Cold Stress SUMMARY SELF-QUIZ CRITICAL THINKING Objectives 1. Explain how  the chemical composition of extracellular fluid is maintained  by mammals. 2. Describe the components of the human  urinary system. 3. Understand  the processes of urine  formation  and  excretion  and  the hormonal  controls involved   in these processes. 4. Understand  the  degrees  to which  ectotherms,  endotherms,  and  heterotherms  can  control  their  body temperatures.  5. Explain how  heat  gain and  loss occur in birds and  mammals  and  how  these animals maintain  a  steady  body temperature. 86 Chapter  Thirty-Eight
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Key Terms acid-base balance aldosterone antidiuretic hormone   (ADH) Bowman’s capsule buffer system conduction convection distal tubule ectotherms endotherms evaporation evaporative heat loss glomerular  capillaries glomerular  filtration glomerulus hemodialysis heterotherms homeostasis loop of Henle kidneys nephrons nonshivering  heat  production peripheral  vasoconstriction peripheral vasodilation peritoneal dialysis peritubular  capillaries pilomotor response proximal tubule renal shivering response thermal radiation tubular  reabsorption tubular  secretion urinary  system ureter urethra urinary  bladder urine Lecture Outline Impacts, Issues: Truth  in a Test Tube A. Analysis of urine is a routine medical procedure. 1. The sugar level, pH, protein content, and  solute concentration  are checked. 2. Various home kits test for hormones in the urine indicating ovulation, pregnancy, or  declining hormone  levels (menopause). B. Athletes have to undergo  urine tests as a condition  of their eligibility to perform. C.  Urine is an indicator of health, hormonal status, and  drug  use. 38.1
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2011 for the course BIOL 1409 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Dallas Colleges.

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Chapter 38 - 38 THEINTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ChapterOutline...

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