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39 ANIMAL REPRODUCTION   AND DEVELOPMENT Chapter Outline IMPACTS, ISSUES: FERTILITY FACTORS  AND  MIND-BOGGLING BIRTHS 39.1 REFLECTIONS ON SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction Costs of Sexual Reproduction 39.2 STAGES OF REPRODUCTION AND   DEVELOPMENT 39.3 EARLY MARCHING ORDERS Information in the Cytoplasm  Cleavage—The Start of Multicellularity From Blastula to Gastrula 39.4 SPECIALIZED CELLS, TISSUES, AND   ORGANS Cell Differentiation Morphogenesis Pattern Formation Evolution and Development 39.5 REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF HUMAN   MALES When Gonads Form and Become Active Structure and Function of the  Reproductive System Cancers of the Prostate and Testis 39.6 SPERM FORMATION From Germ Cells to Mature Sperm Hormonal Controls 39.7 REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF HUMAN   FEMALES Components of the System Overview  of the Menstrual Cycle 39.8 FEMALE TROUBLES 39.9 THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE Phases of the Cycle Changes in the Ovary and Uterus 39.10 FSH AND  TWINS 39.11 PREGNANCY HAPPENS Sexual Intercourse Fertilization 39.12 PREVENTING OR SEEKING  PREGNANCY 39.13 SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Consequences of Infection  Major Agents of STDs 39.14 FORMATION OF THE EARLY  EMBRYO Cleavage and Implantation Extraembryonic Membranes  Early Hormone Production 39.15 EMERGENCE OF THE VERTEBRATE  BODY PLAN 39.16 THE FUNCTION OF THE PLACENTA 39.17 EMERGENCE OF DISTINCTLY  HUMAN  FEATURES 39.18 MOTHER AS PROVIDER,  PROTECTOR, POTENTIAL THREAT Nutritional Considerations Infectious Diseases Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs 39.19 BIRTH AND  LACTATION Giving Birth Nourishing the Newborn 39.20 MATURATION, AGING, AND  DEATH Stages of the Life Cycle Why We Age and Die 94 Chapter  Thirty-Nine
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SUMMARY SELF-QUIZ CRITICAL THINKING Objectives 1. Understand  how  asexual  reproduction  differs from  sexual  reproduction.  Know  the advantages   and  problems associated  with having separate sexes. 2. Describe early  embryonic  development  and  distinguish  each: oogenesis, fertilization,  cleavage,  gastrulation, and  organ formation. 3. Describe the structure  and  function of the human  male and  female reproductive systems. 4. Outline the principal events of prenatal development. 5. Know  the principal means of controlling human  fertility. 6. Understand  human  sexual behavior that may lead to pregnancy. 7. Be familiar with the processes of maturation, aging, and  death. Key Terms abstinence AIDS allantois amnion animal pole architectural  constraints asexual  reproduction birth control patch birth control pill blastocyst blastula bulbourethral  glands cell differentiation cervix chlamydia chorion cleavage clitoris condoms corpus  luteum cumulative assaults  hypothesis cytoplasmic  localization Depo-Provera
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2011 for the course BIOL 1409 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Dallas Colleges.

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