Chapter16 - 16 EVIDENCEOFEVOLUTION ChapterOutline...

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16 EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION Chapter Outline IMPACTS, ISSUES: MEASURING TIME 16.1 EARLY BELIEFS, CONFOUNDING   DISCOVERIES Questions from Biogeography Questions from Comparative  Morphology Questions about Fossils 16.2 A FLURRY OF NEW THEORIES Squeezing New  Evidence into Old  Beliefs Voyage of the  Beagle 16.3 DARWIN, WALLACE, AND  NATURAL  SELECTION Old Bones and Armadillos A Key Insight—Variation in Traits Natural Selection Defined 16.4 FOSSILS—EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT  LIFE How Do Fossils Form? Fossils in Sedimentary Rock Layer Interpreting the Fossil Record 16.5 DATING PIECES OF THE PUZZLE Radiometric Dating Placing Fossils in Geologic Time 16.6 DRIFTING CONTINENTS, CHANGING   SEAS An Outrageous Hypothesis A Big Connection 16.7 DIVERGENCES FROM A SHARED  ANCESTOR Morphological Divergence Morphological Convergence 16.8 CHANGES IN PATTERNS OF  DEVELOPMENT Genes and Variation in Plants Genes and Variation in Animals Chimps and Humans 16.9 CLUES IN DNA, RNA, AND  PROTEINS Molecular Clocks Protein Comparisons Nucleic Acid Comparisons 16.10 ORGANIZING INFORMATION  ABOUT SPECIES The Higher Taxa A Cladistic Approach 16.11 HOW TO CONSTRUCT A  CLADOGRAM—FOCUS ON SCIENCE 16.12 PREVIEW OF LIFE’S EVOLUTIONARY  HISTORY GENE FLOW SUMMARY SELF-QUIZ CRITICAL THINKING 132 Chapter  Sixteen
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Objectives 1. Understand  the development  of evolutionary  theory and  the struggle to overcome early beliefs. 2. Understand  the  ideas  and  evidence  that  biologists  use  to explain  how  life might  have  changed   through  time. 3. Compare  and  contrast the differing views on how  species might have changed  and  emerged. 4. Explain the origin and  eventual articulation  of the views Darwin  had  on evolution. 5. Understand  how  variation  occurs in populations  and  how  changes  in allele frequencies can be  measured. 6. Know  how  mutations,  gene  flow,  and  population  size  can  influence  the  rate  and  direction  of  population  change. 7. Understand  the central role natural selection plays in evolutionary  science. 8. Describe the kinds of selection mechanisms  that help shape  populations. 9. Understand  how  evolutionary  evidence  helps  to  classify  and  establish  relationships  between   species. Become familiar with cladograms  and  the information  they present. Key Terms adaptation analogous structure catastrophism cladistics comparative  morphology derived  traits domain evolution evolutionary  trees fitness fossilization fossils geologic time scale Gondwana kingdom Lineage Macroevolution microevolution Mitochondrial  DNA Molecular clock Monophyletic  group morphological  convergence natural selection neutral mutation Plate tectonics  theory Radiometric dating species Stratification
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Chapter16 - 16 EVIDENCEOFEVOLUTION ChapterOutline...

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