MIS Study Guide - I. ComputerHardware a....

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I. Computer Hardware a. History and evolution I. Before computers I. II. Stones or bead abacus III. 1642: first mechanical adding machine IV. Industrialization I. Looms with punch cards V. Babbage: “analytical engine” calculates, stores values in memory, performs logical comparisons I. Not built because of lack of electronics VI. Hollerith’s punch cards used for Census data using on of patterns. I. Precursor to IBM VII. Electronic computers VIII. 1946: First: ENIAC I. Programmable II. 5000 calcs/sec III. Vacuum tubes! IV. Drawbacks: size and processing ability IX. 1950s: UNIVAC1, then IBM 704 I. Calcs: 100,000/sec X. Late 1950s: transistors I. 200,000 250,000 calcs/sec XI. Mid 1960s: 3 rd generation: ICs and miniaturization XII. 1971: 4G I. More miniaturization II. Multiprogramming; virtual storage XIII. 1980s: 5G Millions of calcs/sec XIV. Microcomputers I. Altair II. Commodore/Radio Shack III. Apple IV. IBM PC – 1982 XV. Microcomputer systems I. Personal computers II. Network computers III. Technical workstations IV. PDAs V. Information appliances XVI. Midrange systems I. Not as powerful as mainframes II. Less expensive to buy, operate and maintain III. Used to manage large websites, corporate nets, integrated enterprise applications IV. Used as front end servers to assist mainframes II. Network servers
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III. Minicomputers IV. Web servers V. Multiuser systems XVII. Mainframe systems I. Large, fast, powerful computer systems II. Large primary storage III. High transaction processing IV. Handles complex computations V. Used to serve large C/S networks VI. commerce II. Enterprise systems III. Superservers IV. Transaction processors V. Supercomputers I. Extremely powerful systems designed for scientific, engineering, business applications II. Billions to trillions of operations/sec b. Terminology I. Concept ( paste in diagram ) II. Input devices Keyboard Mouse Scanner others III. Output devices Monitor Printer IV. PC guts CPU RAM ( primary storage) Hard disk = magnetic storage ( secondary storage) CD ROM = Optical storage c. Hardware components I. Online devices: separate from but controlled by the CPU II. Offline devices separate from and not under the control of CPU d. Hardware devices I. Storage tradeoffs diagram II. Direct vs. sequential access II. Computer Software a. History and evolution of computer software and programming b. Terminology c. Types of software I. Diagram II. General purpose I. Performs common info processing tasks for end users II. Word processor, spreadsheet III. Aka “productivity packages”
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III. Custom software I. Developed within an org for that org’s use IV. COTS software (commercial off the shelf) I. Many copies sold II. Minimal changes beyond scheduled upgrades III. Purchasers have no control over specs, schedule, or evolution, and no access to source code or internal docs
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2011 for the course CIS 351 taught by Professor Jasonlitz during the Spring '09 term at Thomas Edison State.

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MIS Study Guide - I. ComputerHardware a....

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