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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 19 - Share-Based Compensation and Earnings Per Share Restricted stock refers to shares actually awarded in the name of an employee, although the employer might retain physical possession of the shares. Typically, the employee has all rights of a shareholder, but the shares are subject to certain restrictions or forfeiture. Usually the employee is not free to sell the shares during the restriction period. Restricted shares usually are subject to forfeiture by the employee if employment is terminated between the date of grant and a specified vesting date. Restrictions provide the employee incentive to remain with the company. Compensation cost is the fair value of the restricted stock at the grant date and is equal to the market price of unrestricted shares of the same stock. The fair value of shares awarded under a restricted stock award plan is accrued to compensation expense over the service period for which participants receive the shares. This usually is the period from the date of grant to when restrictions are lifted (the vesting date). The fair value of a stock option is determined by employing a recognized option pricing model. The option pricing model should take into account the (1) exercise price of the option, (2) expected term of the option, (3) current market price of the stock, (4) expected dividends, (5) expected risk-free rate of return during the term of the option, and (6) expected volatility of the stock. The recipient pays no tax at the time of the grant or the exercise of the options under an incentive plan. Instead, the tax on the difference between the option price and the market price at the exercise date is paid on the date any shares acquired are subsequently sold. The employer gets no tax deduction at all. The employee cannot delay paying tax under a nonqualified plan. The tax that could be deferred until the shares are sold under an incentive plan must be paid at the exercise date under a nonqualified plan. On the other hand, the employer is allowed to deduct the difference between the option price and the market price on the exercise date. Thus, a nonqualified plan offers favorable tax treatment to the employer, while an incentive plan offers favorable tax treatment to the employee. For performance-based options initial estimates of compensation cost as well as subsequent revisions of that estimate take into account the likelihood of both forfeitures and achieving performance targets. If it is probable that the performance target will be met, we recognize compensation over the vesting period at fair value. If achieving the target is not probable, no compensation is recorded. Probability is reassessed each period. If the award contains a market condition (e.g., a share option with an exercisability requirement based on the stock price reaching a specified level), then no special accounting is required. The fair value estimate of the share option already implicitly reflects market conditions due to the nature of...
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2011 for the course ACCT 306 taught by Professor Stubb during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.
- Spring '11
- Earnings Per Share