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c101-lecture-2 - Structure of Atoms Atoms and Elements...

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1/12/11 1 Atoms and Elements Structure of Atoms Through a series of experiments conducted by a number of different people (Thomson, Milliken, Rutherford, etc.), we know that atoms are composed of three different types of subatomic particles: electrons protons neutrons Structure of Atoms Electrons: Thomson s cathode ray tube Determined mass to charge ratio of electrons Structure of Atoms Electrons: Millikan s oil drop experiment Determined charge of an electron Structure of Atoms Electrons: Electrons are negatively charged particles charge = -1.602 x 10 -19 C (C=coulomb) mass = 9.11 x 10 -31 kg Structure of Atoms The Nucleus: Rutherford s gold foil experiment Proved that atoms have a nucleus containing most of atom s mass
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1/12/11 2 Structure of Atoms Protons and neutrons combine to form the nucleus of the atom Structure of Atoms Protons: Protons are positively charged particles with a charge that is equal in magnitude to an electron s, but opposite in sign charge = +1.602 x 10 -19 C mass = 1.673 x 10 -27 kg The mass of a proton is ~1800 times that of an electron Structure of Atoms Neutrons: Neutrons are uncharged particles that are slightly heavier than protons charge = 0.00 C mass = 1.675 x 10 -27 kg Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Atomic Mass
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