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# c101_f10_1115 - Review of energy levels(atomic orbitals The...

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Review of energy levels (atomic orbitals) The energy levels for electrons in atoms are called atomic orbitals: 1. Quantized (discrete) energy levels. 2. The electron is a three-dimensional wave- particle that is delocalized over space without an exact location or exact motion. Fig. 7.10, Figs. 7.13-7.15. 3. The periodic table lists atomic orbitals in order from lowest to highest energy. Bound electrons are delocalized in quantized energy levels that are three-dimensional.

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Chemistry 101 Fall 2010 2 Mathematically, we can calculate the energy of the atomic orbitals (i.e., energy of the levels): E n = - 2 π 2 me 4 Z 2 x 1_ (4 πε ο ) 2 h 2 n 2 n = 1 is the first level (the ground state) n = 2 is the second level (the first excited state, 1 level above the ground state) n = 3 is the third level (the second excited state, 2 levels above the ground state) This equation and variations of this equation are only correct for hydrogen and hydrogen-like ions (ions with only 1 electron). Examples: H, He + , Li 2+ , etc. More complicated equations are needed for other situations.
Chemistry 101 Fall 2010 3 Most often the equation is used to calculate Δ E for the electronic transitions in H-like atoms. Δ E = -2.179 x 10 -18 J 1 - 1 = h ν n 2 f n 2 i Example : Calculate the energy for the n = 3 to n = 2 transition in a hydrogen atom. Some variations of this equation replace Δ E with ν photon or 1/ λ photon .

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Chemistry 101 Fall 2010 4 Atomic Orbitals and Quantum Numbers Representations of atomic orbitals: s, p, and d orbitals (Fig. 7.15). Also, http://library.thinkquest.org/3659/structures/shap
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c101_f10_1115 - Review of energy levels(atomic orbitals The...

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