c101_f10_1122 - Unusual electron configurations Transition...

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Unusual electron configurations Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Examples : Cr and Cu Transition metal ions: s and d energy levels change order => all remaining s and d electrons move into the d subshell. Example : Ti 2+
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Chemistry 101 Fall 2010 2 Periodic Trends 1. Size (radius), Figs. 7.20, 7.21 (p. 255, p. 257) a. Depends on n and screening: Larger n means larger orbital size. => expect 2 nd row elements to be larger than 1 st row elements, etc. Smaller n orbitals (inner electrons) screen higher n orbitals (outer electrons) from the nucleus. Screening : e - - e - repulsions between the inner electrons and the outer electrons partially cancel the pull of the nucleus on the higher n electrons. => reduces the attraction force of the nucleus from its actual charge (Z) to an effective charge (Z eff ) => allows higher n orbitals to expand away from the nucleus => expect 2 nd row elements to be larger than 1 st row elements, etc.
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Chemistry 101 Fall 2010 3 b. Depends on effective nuclear charge (Z eff ): More protons (Z) means greater nuclear charge. => greater attractive force on electrons => electrons are pulled in closer => atoms get smaller => expect atoms to get smaller going to the right on the periodic table. Example : Which atom is larger, Li or K?
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