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Unformatted text preview: NAU – Introduction The definition of National interest and the formulation of Foreign Policy do not only depend on national power but also national identity or self-image. Disregard of impact of national identities in assessing how states behave result in periodical cycles from realism (when there is threat) to internationalism (when not) in FP of US. The approach of Nationalists, Realists, Primacist and Internationalists to international relations and FP is restricted • What is the primary characteristic of national identity? It is what provides Nation-States with the legitimacy of appropriating the means of application of force. It is the common belief that unites all the domestic groups within a community around an institution to which they grant the capacity to use force legitimately. It is possible for a government to function properly only if it gets confirmation for its monopoly on the use of violence and respond to other domestic concerns. NI is shaped by internal preferences and external relations. • The use of force is motivated by Norms, cultures, identities. So both a realist and constructivist concern is affirmed in the interpretation of IR • Different national identities may converge (US and EU which is not the Old World anymore) – US misconceived international reality- or conflict (Cold War). This convergence or conflict is the regulator between the military, social or political competition among nations, not solely the relative powers of states. • When both the impact and power in USFP is considered, 4 main types of relation between US and other countries come to fore: fig.1.2. p.28 1) Hierarchy- similar NIs, but unequal distribution of power -NATO and Japan 2) Security community – both NIs and power converge- EU and G-7 3) Hegemony- NIs diverge and one country has unproportionate power – Nondemocratic nations of Middle East, Latin America, Africa, Asia 4) Anarchy – NIs diverge and equal power – Russia and China • All schools of FP strategy interpret the future of US relations with these countries and predict the FP to be conducted in relation to the constraints these differences and convergences give rise to. Nau’s power and identity perspective predicts that in threatening relations of hegemony and anarchy, FP would tend towards balancing and counterbalancing (power dynamic) as well as towards interaction to influence and reposition national identities. • Influence of capital- Markets change identities (chp. 1) Projection of a national identity of democratic freedom and market opportunities is effective for the transformation of relations as identities might change and take a turn towards democracy through the establishment of shared economic goals. Economic engagement might effect political realization of democracy • Not only materialistic considerations but also nonmaterial considerations have an effect in the determination of a nation’s attitude towards other nations: regimes, domestic cultures, perceptions, intentions. domestic cultures, perceptions, intentions....
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2008 for the course GOVT 3857 taught by Professor Katzenstein, p during the Fall '07 term at Cornell.
- Fall '07
- KATZENSTEIN, P