Fungi - Fungi ChytridiomycotaChytridiomycetes (chytrids)...

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Fungi Chytridiomycota—Chytridiomycetes (chytrids) Microsporidia Zygomycota—Zygomycetes (zygote fungi) Glomeromycota—Glomeromycetes (arbuscular fungi) Ascomycota—Ascomycetes (sac fungi) Basidiomycota—Basidiomycetes (club fungi)
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Figure 31-8 Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Red algae Glaucophyte algae Green algae Land plants Fungi Choanoflagellates Animals Amebozoa Fungi and animals share a common ancestor at this point Fungi are more closely related to animals than to land plants.
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Figure 31-9 Plants Animals Fungi Microsporidia Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota Glomeromycota Basidiomycota Ascomycota Glomeromycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota are monophyletic Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota are paraphyletic Make chytrid-like motile gametes and spores Make zygote with tough outer coat Make pedestal-like basidium Make sac-like ascus The Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota have traditionally been recognized as separate phyla. However, data from DNA sequence comparisons has produced a somewhat different phylogeny.
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Eukaryotic nuclei Cell walls of chitin unicellular or multicellular Heterotrophic: saprobic (decomposers that break down and absorb nutrients from dead organic matter by secreting exoenzymes into surroundings), mutualistic symbionts , or parasitic Exoenzymes can break down lignin in wood; cellulose in other plant material Basic characteristics or Fungi
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Fungi and land plants often have a symbiotic relationship—one of close association. Several types of symbiosis are found. Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship that provides benefits to both species involved. In a parasitic symbiotic relationship, one species benefits at the expense of the other. In a commensal relationship, one species benefits while the other is unaffected. Experimental evidence indicates that mycorrhizal fungi and plants are mutualistic.
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Fungi Have Just Two Growth Forms Single-celled fungi are called yeasts. Multicellular fungi have weblike bodies called mycelia.
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Multicellular forms are composed of filaments ( hyphae pl. / hypha sing. ) that may be woven into a mycelium (mass of hyphae); relatively large surface area to absorb nutrients and water from substrate Hyphae may be septate (with cross walls) or coenocytic (without cell walls) Some hyphae form haustoria to penetrate host cells Some hyphae are modified to trap and kill prey Basic structure
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Generalized Fungal Life Cycle Asexual via spores or budding
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2011 for the course BIOL 100A taught by Professor Barbaraveno during the Fall '08 term at California State University Los Angeles .

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Fungi - Fungi ChytridiomycotaChytridiomycetes (chytrids)...

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