Lectures__27138 - Bones and skeletal tissue Biol 1334...

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Unformatted text preview: Bones and skeletal tissue Biol 1334 Lecture 10 Skeletal cartilage Variety of cartilage tissues Contain no nerves or blood vessels Surrounded by perichondrium Connective tissue Resists outward expansion when compressed Supplied with blood vessels All 3 types of cartilage can be found in the skeletal system Hyaline cartilage most abundant Articular cartilage covers the ends of most bones at the moveable joints Costal cartilage connects the ribs to the sternum Respiratory cartilage skeleton of the larynx & reinforces the respiratory passages Nasal cartilage supports the external nose All 3 types of cartilage can be found in the skeletal system Elastic cartilage contains more elastic fibers so can withstand bending Two locations: epiglottis, external ear Fibrocartilage highly compressible Located at sites of heavy pressure & stretching Examples: vertebral discs & meniscus of the knee Cartilage is mitotic tissue & grows in two ways Appositional growth cells from the surrounding perichondrium externally build the matrix Interstitial growth chondrocytes from within the matrix divide and secrete new matrix Bones are divided into 2 groups Axial skeleton form the long axis of the body Includes: skull, vertebral column, rib cage Bones involved with protecting, supporting, & carrying other body parts Appendicular skeleton Bones of the upper and lower limbs & girdles Includes hip and shoulder Bones involved in locomotion Bones are classified by shape Long bones longer than they are wide Shaft & two ends All limb bones except wrist & ankle bones & the patella Short bones roughly cube shaped Wrist & ankle bones Bones are classified by shape Flat bones thin flattened bones Usually curved Sternum, scapulae, ribs, & skull bones Irregular bones complicated shapes Include vertebrae and hip bones Function of the bones Support provides the framework of the body & cradles the organs Protection hard barrier to protect soft tissue from trauma Movement muscles use bones as levers to move the body and its parts Mineral & growth factor storage serves as a reservoir for calcium and phosphate Blood cell formation hematopoiesis occurs in the marrow cavities with certain bones Bone Textures Compact bone makes up the external layer of bones Spongy bone internal to the compact bone Honeycombed with small flat pieces called trabeculae The space with the honeycomb is filled with red or yellow marrow Structure of the long bone Diaphysis shaft, forms the long axis Constructed of a relatively thick layer of compact bone surrounding the central medullary cavity In adults cavity is filled with yellow marrow (fats) Epiphysis bone end Exterior is compact bone Interior is spongy bone Joint surface is covered by a thin layer...
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2011 for the course BIOL 1334 taught by Professor Chadwayne during the Spring '08 term at University of Houston.

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Lectures__27138 - Bones and skeletal tissue Biol 1334...

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