Lectures__27656 - The Central Nervous System Biol 1334...

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The Central Nervous System Biol 1334 Lecture 18-20
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The regions of the brain Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Brain Stem Cerebellum
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Organization of the CNS Basic pattern includes: A central canal Gray matter core (neuronal cell bodies) Surrounded by white matter (myelinated fiber tracts) Cerebrum also has an outer gray matter layer called the cortex
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The ventricles Four, hollow ventricular chambers filled with CSF and lined with ependymal cells. All four are continuous. Three openings (apertures) in the fourth ventricle that connect with the subarachnoid space.
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Cerebral hemispheres Superior part of the brain Elevated ridges are called gyri (s: gyrus) Shallow grooves between gyri are sulci (s: sulcus) Fissures separate large regions of the brain Most prominent gyri and sulci serve as anatomical landmarks
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Cerebral hemispheres Each hemisphere is divided by sulci into five lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and insula (buried deep in the lateral sulcus). Central sulcus separates frontal and parietal lobes Lateral sulcus separates temporal from frontal and parietal lobes Parieto-occipital sulcus separates parietal and occipital lobes
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Cerebral cortex Responsible for the conscious mind: Enables us to be aware of ourselves Aware of sensations Communication Remember Understand (think) Initiate voluntary movement Contains three kinds of functional areas: Motor areas Sensory areas Association areas Each hemisphere is primarily concerned with the opposite side of the body The two hemispheres are not entirely equal in function No functional area of the cortex acts alone, even though we break it down that way.
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Motor areas
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Motor areas Primary motor cortex Located in the precentral gyrus Conscious control of voluntary movements of our skeletal muscles Specific areas are responsible for controlling specific muscles, which can be mapped using a motor homonculus Premotor cortex Located anterior to the precenrtral gyrus Control learned motor skills of a repititious or patterned nature Also involved in planning movement Broca’s area Located in the left hemisphere (usually) Directs muscles controlling speech Frontal eye field Superior to Broca’s area Controls voluntary movement of the eyes
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Motor Homunculus
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Sensory areas
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Sensory Areas Primary somatosensory cortex Located in the postcentral gyrus Receive information from the somatosensory receptors Specific areas identify location of stimuli, which can be mapped using a sensory homonculus Somatosensory association cortex Located posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex Integrates sensory input to produce understanding of the object being felt Visual areas: two areas Primary visual cortex: receives visual input from eyes Visual association area: interprets visual stimuli
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Sensory Homunculus
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2011 for the course BIOL 1334 taught by Professor Chadwayne during the Spring '08 term at University of Houston.

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Lectures__27656 - The Central Nervous System Biol 1334...

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