self esteem predictors

self esteem predictors - Cognitive Therapy and Research,...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, June 2004 ( C 2004), pp. 369385 Predictors of Self-Esteem Variability Adele M. Hayes, 1,2 Melanie S. Harris, 1 and Charles S. Carver 1 Self-esteem (SE) variability has been shown to prospectively predict symptoms of de- pression. We examined four potential contributors to SE variability (limited sources of self-esteem, defectiveness, negative generalization, and adverse events). College stu- dents with and without a history of depression symptoms completed ratings of current self-esteem and adverse events for 14 days. Adverse interpersonal events predicted SE variability, as did their interaction with defectiveness and with generalization. Gen- eralization also contributed uniquely to the prediction of SE variability. More severe symptoms of past depression were associated with more defectiveness, negative gener- alization, adverse events, and SE variability. Results support J. E. Roberts and S. M. Monroes (1994) theoretical model of vulnerable self-esteem and depression and help to elucidate the process by which SE variability occurs. KEY WORDS: self-esteem; ability; variability; vulnerable; depression. . . . feelings about the nature of ones self are at the epicenter of the depression storm. Depressive feelings seem to emanate from and then reflect back on a self that is seen as somehow inadequate, improper, disliked, or damaged. (Karp, 1996, p. 48) A number of theorists have highlighted the central role of self-esteem in de- pression (e.g., Beck, 1967, 1976; Brown & Harris, 1989; Gotlib & Hammen, 1992; Solomon, Greenberg, & Pyszczynski, 1991). There is growing consensus, however, that it is the variability of self-esteem, rather than whether it is high or low at a given point in time, that can render an individual vulnerable to depression (Butler, Hokanson, & Flynn, 1994; Kernis et al., 1998; Kernis, Paradise, Whitaker, Wheatman, & Goldman, 2000; Roberts & Monroe, 1994). The temporal stability of self-esteem is typically indexed by computing the stan- dard deviation of participants scores across multiple assessments; the larger the stan- dard deviation, the more unstable (variable) ones global self esteem. 3 Self-esteem 1 Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida. 2 Correspondence should be directed to Adele M. Hayes, Department of Psychology, University of Miami, 5665 Ponce de Leon Blvd, Coral Gables, Florida 33146-0751; e-mail: 3 This index has been labeled self-esteem stability in studies by Kernis and colleagues. We use the term self-esteem variability because larger standard deviations (more variability) are associated with elevated depression scores. Roberts and colleagues similarly use the term self-esteem lability ....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 03/06/2011 for the course PSYCH 212 taught by Professor Dansullivan during the Spring '11 term at NYU.

Page1 / 17

self esteem predictors - Cognitive Therapy and Research,...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online