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Unformatted text preview: Reflexive
and
Non­reflexive
Identity
Perceptions:
 Finding
a
Balance
 KATHARINA
HAMETNER
 University
of
Vienna
 
 AMREI
C.
JOERCHEL
 University
of
Vienna
 
 
 
 Various
concepts
of
identity
turn
their
attention
to
the
reflexive
and
directly
accessible
aspects
 of
identity.
To
a
certain
degree
this
leads
to
the
exclusion
of
implicit
and
not
reflexively
available
 parts
of
identity.
The
importance
of
these
aspects
is
nevertheless
decisive
for
a
holistic
approach
 to
 the
 phenomenon
 of
 identity.
 Starting
 from
 these
 considerations
 this
 article
 argues
 for
 a
 position
that
puts
these
marginalized
aspects
of
identity
at
the
center
of
attention.
Furthermore
 it
 proposes
 a
 way
 of
 discussing
 the
 concept
 of
 identity
 in
 which
 the
 reflexive
 and
 the
 habitual
 parts
 are
 united.
 Various
 theories
 are
 analyzed
 in
 regard
 to
 these
 two
 aspects,
 where
 the
 positive
 as
 well
 as
 the
 problematic
 facets
 are
 briefly
 highlighted
 in
 a
 search
 for
 a
 better
 understanding
of
what
a
combined
approach
would
have
to
take
into
consideration.
 
 
 
 The
 notion
 of
 identity
 has
 a
 long
 standing
 history
 of
 debate
 between
 scientists
 and
 philosophers
about
it.
Many
concepts
within
the
identity
discussion
turn
their
attention
 to
the
reflexive
and
directly
accessible
aspects
of
identity.
To
a
certain
degree
this
leads
 to
 the
 exclusion
 of
 implicit
 and
 non‐reflexively
 facets
 of
 identity
 that
 are
 not
 readily
 available.
 Actions
 and
 habitual
 interactions
 of
 individuals
 in
 their
 intentional
 worlds
 (Shweder,
1990)
are
often
neglected.
Furthermore,
while
the
socio‐cultural
perspective
 emphasizes
the
fact
that
action
is
mediated
and
cannot
be
separated
from
the
milieu
in
 which
 it
 is
 carried
 out
 (Wertsch,
 1991),
 we
 question
 identity
 concepts
 which
 mainly
 focus
on
reflexive
and
conscious
aspects
of
the
self.
Situated
and
non‐reflexive
aspects
of
 the
 self
 are
 often
 neglected
 in
 psychological
 theorizing
 of
 the
 self,
 and
 yet,
 the
 importance
of
them
is
nevertheless
necessary
for
a
holistic
approach
to
the
phenomenon
 of
identity.

 
 Starting
 with
 these
 considerations
 this
 article
 argues
 for
 a
 position
 that
 places
 marginalized
 aspects
 of
identity
such
as
non‐reflexive
 and
 situated
facets
of
the
 self
 at
 the
center
of
attention.
By
discussing
some
contemporary
theories
of
identity
within
the
 social
 scientific
 literature,
 this
 article
 asserts
 a
 concept
 of
 identity
 which
 unites
 the
 reflexive
as
well
as
the
habitual
facets.
 
 IDENTITY
AND
REFLEXIVNESS—CRITICAL
REFLECTIONS
 
 Identity
is
often
seen
as
the
attempt
to
answer
the
following
questions:
 Who
am
I?
and
 Who
are
you?
(Mummendey
&
Simon,
1997).
These
questions
already
refer
to
a
reflexive
 structure
 of
 many
 identity
 concepts
 which
 have
 traditionally
 been
 the
 main
 focus
 in
 identity
 theories.
 Such
 an
 understanding
 of
 identity
 is
 questioned
 here,
 as
 it
 suggests
 that
 the
 question
 of
 identity
 is
 something
 you
 can
 answer
 verbally,
 explicitly,
 and
 Psychology
&
Society,
2009,
Vol.
2
(1),
22
‐
28
 22 reflexively.
Similarity
and
difference
(Mummendey
&
Simon,
1997),
as
well
as
continuity
 (the
 experience
of
 remaining
 the
 same
person
 over
the
 course
 of
time)
 and
coherence
 (the
aspiration
to
be
an
entity
of
one
person)
(Lucius‐Hoene
&
Deppermann,
2004),
for
 example,
seem
to
be
very
important
in
such
theories.
Furthermore
self
reflexivity,
which
 can
be
defined
as
the
possibility
to
be
subject
and
object
at
the
same
time
and
to
admit
a
 relationship
 to
 oneself
 (Lucius‐Hoene
 &
 Deppermann,
 2004)
 has
 been
 discussed
 profusely.
 
 In
recent
identity
theories
the
terms
identity
construction
and
 identity
work
increasingly
 have
 gained
 relevance.
 Especially
 Keupp
 et
 al.
 (1999)
 emphasize
 that
 identity
 is
 not
 something
that
a
person
has
since
birth
or
something
that
one
could
attain
once
and
for
 all,
but
something
that
must
be
constructed
in
daily
identity
work.
Identity
in
this
case
is
 not
secure,
but
a
temporary
state.
 
 While
 constructionist
 theories—such
 as
 Keupp
 et
 al.
 (1999)—have
 transcended
 the
 static
 and
 reified
 views
 of
 identity,
 other
 problems
 arise.
 Despite
 the
 emphasis
 on
 constructing
identity
and
the
apparent
freedom
of
choice,
it
must
not
be
forgotten
that
 this
 process
 of
 constructing
 is
 limited
 by
 power
 structures
 and
 collective
 discriminations
 which
 influence
 and
 determine
 chances
 and
 possibilities
 of
 identity
 development.
 Ha
 (2004)
 warns
 us
 that
 in
 post‐modern
 theory
 the
 material
 and
 social
 premises
 such
 as
 capital
 and
 education
 sometimes
 are
 neglected
 by
 postulating
 a
 free
 field
 of
constructing.
 Also
the
 theory
of
 Keupp
et
al.
 (1999)
has
to
 a
certain
 extent
not
 been
able
to
avoid
these
pitfalls
which
are
typical
in
postmodern
theories.
While
Keupp
 et
 al.
 note
 at
 the
 beginning
 of
 their
 book
 that
 identity
 work
 cannot
 be
 made
 thematic
 without
 mentioning
 the
 specific
 historical
 conditions
 of
 identity
 construction,
 it
 is
 precisely
these
aspects
which
receive
not
enough
concrete
attention
within
descriptions
 of
identity
work
processes.
 
 Keupp
 et
 al.
 (1999)
 state
 that
 identity
 work
 is
 primarily
 the
 permanent
 process
 of
 linking‐up—connecting
 matters
 of
 time,
 content,
 and
 life‐world
 (Lebenswelt).
 In
 the
 process
 of
 linking‐up
 a
 person
 has
 to
 cope
 with
 the
 permanent
 tension
 between
 the
 internal
 and
 external
 world
 and
 their
differences.
 A
 definitive
 fit
 between
 the
 internal
 and
 external
 world
 is
 not
 within
 reach—we
 are
 only
 able
 to
 approach
 a
 subjectively
 defined
degree
of
ambiguity
(Keupp
et
al.,
1999).

 
 Keupp
et
al.
(1999)
call
 the
products
of
 identity
work
the
 identity
parts
(Teilidentitäten)
 the
 feeling
 of
 identity
 (Identitätsgefühl)
 and
 the
 central
 biographical
 narratives
 (Kernnarrationen).
 The
 idea
 of
 such
 identity
parts
proposes
that
one
 person
may
 have
 many
different
parts
of
identity
in
relation
to
the
different
parts
of
daily
life
(e.g.
identity
 as
a
worker,
as
a
student,
as
a
family
member,
in
an
ethnic
group).
All
the
currently
valid
 cognitive,
social,
emotional,
body,
and
product‐oriented
standards
are
included
in
these
 identity
parts
(Keupp
et
al.,
1999).
The
benefit
of
such
an
idea—identity
parts—is
that
it
 allows
 for
 a
 plurality
 in
 identity,
 which
 is
 necessary
 in
 a
 multifaceted
 world.
 Other
 interesting
 aspects
 of
 Keupp
 et
 al.’s
 (1999)
 theory
 are
 the
 central
 biographical
 narratives
which
represent
an
ideology
of
one’s
self.
They
can
be
seen
as
an
attempt
to
 communicate
a
sense
of
one’s
self
and
one’s
self’s
life.
Including
narratives
in
the
process
 of
 identity
 work
 is
 an
 important
 point
 because
 the
 concept
 of
 central
 biographical
 narratives
focus
on
the
 process
of
narration,
and
in
turn
stress
the
fact
that
identity
is
a
 procedural
phenomenon.

 Psychology
&
Society,
2009,
Vol.
2
(1),
22
‐
28
 23 
 Nevertheless
 the
theory
 of
Keupp
 et
al.
 (1999)
 returns
to
 a
 slightly
 reified
and
 unified
 viewpoint
of
the
self
with
the
notion
of
feeling
of
identity
(Identitätsgefühl)—similar
to
a
 condensation
 and
 generalization
 of
 all
 the
 biographical
 experiences
 of
 one’s
 person.
 It
 consists
of
all
the
 identity
parts
and
themes
of
one’s
 self.
Thus
Keupp
et
al.’s
theory
has
 eventually
 made
 use
 of
 a
 single
 comprehensive
 structure
 which
 is
 superior
 to
 the
 various
identity
parts
and
undermines
the
conception
of
a
fragmented
identity.

 
 The
concept
Keupp
et
al.
(1999)
describe
focuses
on
reflexive
self
construction.
Identity
 work—as
 a
 process
 of
 linking‐up—is
 a
 self
 reflexive
 act,
 in
 which
 a
 person
 tries
 to
 formulate
who
he
or
she
is
and
wants
to
be.
In
this
process
the
reflexive
composition
of
 narratives
 plays
 an
 important
 role.
 Identity
 from
 this
 point
 of
 view
 is
 the
 temporary
 product
of
self
reflection.
To
a
certain
degree
this
approach
neglects
the
non‐conscious
 practical
knowledge
and
the
implicit
orientations
which
we
consider
important
parts
of
 identity.

 
 THE
DIALOGICAL
SELF
THEORY—A
STEP
BEYOND
CONSTRUCTIONALISM
 
 One
step
closer
to
transcending
the
reified
and
static
notion
of
the
self
is
the
theory
 of
 the
 dialogical
 self.
 First
 proposed
 in
 1992
 by
 Hermans,
 Kempen
 and
 van
 Loon,
 this
 theoretical
framework
is
built
on
the
intersection
of
the
Jamesian
distinction
between
‘I’
 and
 ‘Me,’
and
on
Bakhtin’s
polyphonic
novel.
The
result
is
a
conception
of
the
self
that
is
 a
dynamic
multiplicity
with
a
narrative
necessity.
More
precisely,
the
self
is
described
as
 a
 dynamic
 multiplicity
 of
 I
 positions
 that
 are
 in
 constant
 dialogical
 interaction
 in
 an
 imaginal
 landscape
 (Hermans
 et
 al.,
 1992).
 According
 to
 this
 conception,
 the
 I
 has
 the
 ability
 to
 move,
 as
 in
 space,
 from
 one
 position
 to
 another.
 As
 the
 I
 fluctuates
 from
 sometimes
 even
 opposing
 positions,
 it
 has
 the
 capacity
 to
 imaginatively
 endow
 each
 position
 with
 a
 voice
 which
 enables
 the
 possibility
 of
 dialogical
 relations
 to
 be
 established
 between
 various
 positions.
 The
 various
 voices
 function
 like
 interacting
 characters
in
a
story
which
take
on
a
life
of
their
own
and
thus
also
a
certain
narrative
 necessity.

 
 The
self
is
understood
to
be
social
as
various
social
others
may
occupy
positions
within
 the
multivoiced
self.
This
phenomenon
is
also
transferred
to
bodily
things
as
James’
view
 of
 the
 Me,
 and
 is
 equated
 with
 the
 self‐as‐known,
 which
 is
 composed
 of
 the
 empirical
 elements
considered
as
belonging
to
one’s
self.
As
Hermans
(2001)
has
noted,
James

 
 “concluded
that
the
empirical
self
is
composed
of
all
the
person
can
call
his
or
her
own,
‘not
 only
his
body
and
his
psychic
powers,
but
his
clothes
and
his
house,
his
wife
and
children,
 his
ancestors
and
friends,
his
reputation
and
his
work,
his
lands
and
horses,
and
yacht
and
 bank­account.’”
(James,
1890,
p.
291,
as
cited
in
Hermans,
2001,
p.
244)
 
 Such
 an
 extended
 self
 transcends
 the
 constructionalist
 perspective
 of
 the
 self
 in
 that
 each
 of
 these
 positions
 is
 necessarily
 situated
 and
 “embedded
 in
 a
 historical
 context
 with
 deep
 implications
 for
 both
 the
 form
 and
 the
 content
 of
 narratives
 and
 dialogical
 processes”
 (Hermans
 et
 al.,
 1992,
 p.
 29).
 Thus,
 the
 theory
 of
 the
 dialogical
 self
 has
 succeeded
in
highlighting
how
the
self
is
situated
in
pointing
to
the
mediated
aspect
of
 action
as
well
as
the
dynamic
and
ongoing
process
of
self‐formation.
As
the
self
moves
 and
 acts
 within
 a
 certain
 milieu,
 its
 action—in
 this
 case
 the
 dialogical
 process—is
 Psychology
&
Society,
2009,
Vol.
2
(1),
22
‐
28
 24 mediated
 accordingly.
 Moreover,
 as
 various
 positions
 are
 in
 constant
 negotiation
 and
 debate,
the
 structure
 of
the
positions‐repertoire
 is
constantly
fluctuating
and
changing
 according
 to
 time
 and
 situation.
 The
 dialogical
 self
 theory
 is,
 however,
 focused
 very
 heavily
on
the
metaphor
of
voice
(Ruck
&
Slunecko,
2006)
and
thus
lacks
the
emphasis
 on
 habitual
 action
 and
 practices.
 While
 dialogue
 and
 narrative
 certainly
 play
 a
 major
 role
 in
 identity
 work,
 as
 we
 have
 already
 pointed
 out
 with
 Keupp
 et
 al.
 (1999),
 the
 habitual
 aspects
 of
 the
 self
 should
not
be
neglected
 either.
 The
following
will
 focus
 on
 the
more
subtle
non‐reflexive
and
habitual
facets
of
the
self.
 
 A
FOCUS
ON
THE
PRACTICAL
KNOWLEDGE—BOURDIEU’S
HABITUS
THEORY
 
 Bourdieu’s
 (1979,
 1987,
 1997)
 habitus
 theory
 focuses
 on
 non‐reflexive
 and
 practical
 knowledge.
It
marks
a
paradigm
shift
from
the
perception
of
social
practice
as
result
of
 conscious
 decisions
 to
 social
 practice
 conceived
 as
 something
 that
 is
 based
 on
 incorporated
and
non‐conscious
procedures
(Krais
&
Gebauer,
2002).
 
 The
 habitus
 is
 an
 overarching
 principle
 which
 mediates
 between
 the
 concrete
 life
 conditions
 and
 the
 practices.
 It
 is
 a
 set
 of
 dispositions
 that
 creates
 and
 classifies
 practices
 at
 the
 same
 time
 through
 its
 specific
 constitution
 as
 a
 modus
 operandi.
 It
 structures
perception,
cognition
and
the
acts
of
a
person
(Schwingel,
2000).
The
habitus
 is
a
 creative
 principle
 which
 produces—in
 co‐action
with
new
situations—consistently
 new
practices
(Krais&
Gebauer,
2002).
In
doing
so,
the
habitus
does
not
cause
complete
 determination
 but
 creates
 a
 field
 of
 possible
 practices,
 which
 are
 relatively
 unforeseeable,
 but
 nevertheless
 of
 limited
 variety
 (Schwingel,
 2000).
 These
 practices
 produced
 by
 the
 habitus
 are
 comprised
 of
 different
 behavior—for
 example,
 body
 techniques
 (Körpertechniken)
such
as
walking,
eating,
and
gesticulating.
Moreover,
they
 are
 constructions
 and
 evaluations
 of
 the
 social
 world,
 such
 as
 the
 taste
 for
 art,
 sports,
 and
 food.
 The
 habitual
 dispositions
 are
 implicit
 and
 not
 necessarily
 part
 of
 reflexive
 thought
 processes.
 They
 are
 practical
 knowledge
 which
 is
 not
 located
 in
 the
 consciousness
and
only
is
partially
accessible
by
it.

 
 The
 habitus
 is
 furthermore
 an
 opus
 operatum.
 It
 is
 not
 inborn,
 but
 something
 that
 is
 made.
 The
 habitus
 develops
 through
 experiences
 with
 the
 social
 world
 and
 the
 conditions
 of
 life,
 and
 can
 be
 modified
 through
 new
 experiences
 (Krais
 &
 Gebauer,
 2002).
The
specific
form
of
the
habitus
thus
accrues
from
the
conditions
of
existence.
In
 this
 process
 necessities
 transform
 to
 strategies
 and
 compulsions
 to
 preferences
 (Bourdieu,
 1987).
 The
 production
 of
 the
 habitus
 reproduces,
 to
 a
 certain
 degree,
 the
 conditions
from
 which
it
emanates.
In
doing
so
the
 past
affects—through
 the
practices
 which
are
an
actualisation
of
the
past—the
future
(Bourdieu,
1979).
 
 Bourdieu’s
 concept
 of
 habitus
 focuses
 on
 the
 collective
 aspects.
 Nevertheless
 the
 individual
 habitus
 is
 also
 brought
 to
attention.
 The
individual
habitus
 is
the
 individual
 acquisition
of
possibilities
which
are
given
by
the
collective
habitus
(Schwingel,
2000).
 The
 specific
 formation
 of
 the
 field
 of
 possibilities
 given
 by
 the
 personal
 biography
 constitutes
 individual
 differences.
 Due
 to
 the
 fundamentally
 similar
 conditions
 of
 existence
within
a
social
class,
homogeneity
of
the
habitus
can
be
detected
at
any
given
 point
in
time
(Bourdieu,
1997).
The
homogeneity
causes
unison
of
the
practices
without
 an
explicit
coordination
by
the
acting
subjects.
 
 Psychology
&
Society,
2009,
Vol.
2
(1),
22
‐
28
 25 AN
ATTEMPT
OF
SYNTHESIS—REFLEXIVE
AND
HABITUAL
PARTS
OF
IDENTITY
 
 If
we
look
at
what
was
elaborated
so
far,
it
seems
that
everything
we
do
as
well
as
the
 way
we
are
is
defined
by
two
parts:
the
reflexive
and
conscious
part
and
the
non‐
or
pre‐ reflexive
 habitual
 part.
 Can
 these
 two
 components
 be
 captured
 with
 the
 one
 term
 of
 identity?

 
 Hartmut
Rosa
(2002)
defines
identity
as
not
only
constituted
of
a
reflective
part,
but
also
 of
 a
 practical
 part.
 This
 practical
 part
 consists
 of
 actions,
 preferences
 and
 distinctions,
 and
is
understood
as
the
simply
 lived
answer
to
the
question
who
one
is.
Here
the
 lived
 answer
 is
 distinguished
 from
 the
 reflective
 answer
 to
 the
 question
 of
 identity.
 In
 his
 opinion
 our
 identity
 develops
 and
 conserves
 itself
 to
 a
 high
 degree
 in
 what
 Bourdieu
 (1997)
calls
habitus.
Following
this
assumption
identity
can
be
understood
as
something
 that
is
only
partly
accessible
for
reflection.
It
exists
only
partly
in
the
form
of
explicit
and
 conscious
thoughts
and
assumptions.
 The other part of identity—and from Rosa’s point of view the fundamental part—is included implicitly in our practices and always needs practical reinforcement in concrete actions (Rosa, 2002).
Both
 components
are
part
of
 a
 reciprocal
 relationship:
the
reflexive
opinions
and
interpretations
on
the
one
hand
and
the
habitual
 practices,
 schemes
 of
 perception,
 and
 schemes
 of
 evaluation
 on
 the
other
hand,
 which
 influence
and
change
each
other
simultaneously.
 
 A
similar
perspective
is
taken
by
Renn
and
Straub
(2002).
These
authors
especially
focus
 on
the
act
of
narrating.
Renn
and
Straub
point
out
that
the
autobiographical
narrative
is
 something
which
is
at
most
only
partly
understood
if
it
is
conceived
as
only
a
reflexive
 description
 of
 one’s
 life.
 Narrating
 is
 not
 the
 presentation
 of
 a
 complete
 and
 reflexive
 identity.
It
is
a
pre‐reflexive
act
in
which
the
creation
of
identity
 begins
and
takes
place.
 Therefore
identity
 is
understood
not
as
 something
 substantial,
 which
 can
be
owned
 or
 possessed,
 but
 as
 implicit
 and
 operational
 knowledge
 which
 can
 only
 partly
 be
 transferred
into
an
explicit
self
conception
(Renn
&
Straub,
2002).
The
narrative
idea
of
 identity
 does
 not
 regard
 identity
 as
 something
 which
 is
 completed
 or
 ever
 able
 to
 be
 completed
 (Kraus,
 2002).
 A
 final
 state
 cannot
 be
 achieved.
 From
 this
 point
 of
 view
 identity
undergoes
constant
fluctuation
and
change
(Kraus,
2002;
Renn
&
Straub,
2002).
 
 CONCLUSION
 
 The
aim
of
this
article
has
been
to
demonstrate
that
while
identity
theories
have
in
the
 past
focused
on
reflexive
aspects
of
the
self
with
a
reified
and
static
conception,
the
self
 should
 be
conceived
 as
dynamic
and
 inclusive
 of
 non‐reflexive
 habitual
aspects.
 As
we
 have
 shown
 with
 Hermans
 et
 al.
 (1992),
 Bourdieu
 (1979,
 1987,
 1997),
 Rosa
 (2002),
 Renn
 and
 Straub
 (2002)
 and
 Kraus
 (2002),
 more
 and
 more
 social
 scientists
 strive
 to
 conceive
the
self
as
both
fluid,
permeable,
flexible
and
process
oriented,
as
well
as
non‐ reflexive
and
situated
within
a
habitus.
While
the
reflexive
and
subjective
nature
of
the
 self
 is
 an
 important
 and
 relevant
 aspect
 which
 should
 not
 be
 dismissed
 in
 favor
 of
 a
 purely
 non‐reflexive
 conception
 of
 the
 self,
 this
 article
 emphasized
 the
 non‐reflexive
 facets
and
the
habitus
as
aspects
that
have
long
been
neglected
within
the
psychological
 endeavor.
Instead
of
arguing
for
one
aspect
of
the
self
(static,
reflexive,
and
finalized)
or
 another
(permeable,
fluid,
process‐oriented,
and
non‐reflexive),
both
aspects
should
be
 taken
 seriously
 and
 should
 be
 incorporated
 into
 theories
 of
 identity.
 Both
 aspects
 Psychology
&
Society,
2009,
Vol.
2
(1),
22
‐
28
 26 together
comprise
the
self
in
fundamental
ways
and
none
should
be
dismissed
in
favor
 of
the
other.
Thus,
it
is
a
combination
of
both
sides
which
we
propose
here.
 
 References
 
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P.
(1979).
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 einer
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 Wertsch,
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 Psychology
&
Society,
2009,
Vol.
2
(1),
22
‐
28
 27 
 AUTHOR
BIOGRAPHIES
 
 Katharina
Hametner
is
a
psychologist
and
PhD‐scholar
at
the
University
of
Vienna.
She
is
 lecturing
 at
 the
 Sigmund
 Freud
 University,
 Vienna
 and
 founding
 member
 of
 ikus.
 Her
 main
research
interests
are
identity
theory,
 qualitative
methods,
migration,
and
cultural
 [email protected] 
 Amrei
 C.
 Joerchel
 is
 currently
 working
 on
 her
 PhD
 at
 the
 University
 in
 Vienna.
 She
 is
 mainly
 interested
 in
 the
 concept
 of
 identity
 and
 culture.
 More
 specifically,
 her
 PhD
 concerns
the
theory
of
the
dialogical
self
and
the
inclusion
of
the
concept
of
culture.
She
 [email protected]ikus.cc
 
 
 Psychology
&
Society,
2009,
Vol.
2
(1),
22
‐
28
 28 ...
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