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co-phenomenology (p)

co-phenomenology (p) - Integr Psych Behav(2008 42:171178...

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TARGET ARTICLE Intersubjectivity as Co-phenomenology: From the Holism of Meaning to the Being-in-the-world-with-others Carlos Cornejo Published online: 15 January 2008 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract I outline in this paper a pragmatical approach to meaning. Meaning is defined as a phenomenologically experienced construal. As such, it is a dynamic object whose first evidence comes from the first person rather than the third one. At the same time, the approach assumes that meaning is not an individual creation, but rather an intersubjective one. Origins of meaning are also to be founded not in the head of a cognitive system or subject, but in the intersubjective space contingently formed between a subject (S), an other (O) and a common object (R), which they talk about. Approaching this minimal communicative situation therefore requires realizing that the phenomenological dimension is always implied in any intersub- jective encounter. The observed synchronized co-feeling among subjects, upon which language comprehension takes place, I call co-phenomenology . When analyzed in this way, intersubjectivity shows at the same time its social, phenomenological and biological dimensions. Keywords Intersubjectivity . Holism . Co-phenomenology . Meaning . Pragmatics Introduction: Meaning, Context and Holism Classical cognitive approaches conceive meaning as an intrinsic property of certain linguistic forms. According to this hypothesis, words have meanings in themselves: They mean what they mean due to their meanings, which are independent of subject and context. Nonetheless, empirical evidence and theoretical arguments speak against the idea of meaning-in-itself (Cornejo 2004 ). For instance, according to the mental-lexicon-hypothesis the semantic processing takes place independent on the context where words appear. However, studies about the time-course of language comprehension show that meaning is early and highly sensible to the context of use. Integr Psych Behav (2008) 42:171 178 DOI 10.1007/s12124-007-9043-6 C. Cornejo ( * ) Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile e-mail: [email protected]
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Persons are always relating new words with the immediately precedent discursive context (Van Berkum et al. 1999 ; Van Berkum et al. 2003 ). Previous sentences influence expectancy on posterior words in wakefulness and even in sleep, by modulating the N400 component (Ibáñez et al. 2006 ). There are also macro-contextual aspects of the communication situation which have influence on the meaning comprehension. For example, we evaluated if induced different interpretative strategies persons influences the meaning compre- hension (Cornejo et al. 2007 ). Studying irony comprehension, we framed the experimental task either with a holistic problem solving approach or with an analytical one. Holistic strategy intuitive and contextually dependent performs better on the behavioral measures when distinguishing ironies from non-sense expressions, and its electrophysiological correlates show clearly a larger contextual sensitivity. The same linguistic stimuli produce completely different cognitive
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co-phenomenology (p) - Integr Psych Behav(2008 42:171178...

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