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Unformatted text preview: Dynamic Factor Analysis of Worldviews/Religious Beliefs and Well-Being among Older Adults Jungmeen Kim Æ John R. Nesselroade Æ Michael E. McCullough Published online: 14 April 2009 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009 Abstract Intraindividual patterns of time-lagged rela- tionships among self-reports of worldviews/religious beliefs, self-concept, and physical and psychological well- being were investigated. Participants were older adults (mean age = 77 years) who were measured weekly cov- ering a total of 25 weeks. Dynamic Factor Models were fitted to multivariate repeated measures data pooled over subsets of participants. The results showed significant time- lagged cross-factor relationships suggesting that world- views/religious beliefs had a significant direct effect on self-concept and physical health over 2 weeks. For each factor series, there were substantial autoregressive effects indicating persisting effects of factors on themselves over 1 or 2 weeks. A link between worldviews/religious beliefs and physical health was found in the time-lagged structure of within-person variability. The findings underscore the need to study both intraindividual change and interindi- vidual differences in intraindividual variability to obtain a better understanding of behavior and behavioral development. Keywords Intraindividual variability Á Dynamic factor analysis Á Worldviews/religious beliefs Á Well-being Introduction Research on behavior and behavior change has focused heavily on the study of stable behavior traits and individual differences in gradual, more or less irreversible develop- mental changes. Studies of aging have been mostly cross- sectional and preoccupied with investigating simple aver- ages aggregated across individuals; information that can hardly answer questions about interindividual differences in the aging process or intraindividual change over time. However, empirical evidence and conceptual arguments are increasingly suggesting that fundamental aspects of behavior and behavioral change need to be defined in more dynamical, change-oriented terms rather than static, equi- librium-oriented terms (e.g., Cattell 1963 ; Horn 1972 ; Larsen 1987 ; Nesselroade 1991 , 2004 ). Within the dynamics of adaptation and selective optimization of gains and losses over the life span (Baltes et al. 1998 ), intrain- dividual variability, rather than stability, may offer a more promising way to characterize the ‘‘base’’ conditions of living organisms (Nesselroade and Featherman 1997 ). From a measurement standpoint, intraindividual variabil- ity, as a given condition of the organism, contributes to differences found among persons at any given occasion of measurement. Given the theoretical and methodological implications, studying intraindividual variability and interindividual differences (and similarities) in intraindi- vidual variability is key to obtaining a fuller understanding of behavior and behavioral development....
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- Spring '11
- religious beliefs, Dynamic Factor Analysis, worldviews/religious beliefs, John R. Nesselroade