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Foucault’s Intersection B = Cindy Smith A B A = Tim Brennan 1 www.newmedia.sunderland.ac.co.uk/crumb 2 Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe (1719) Penguin, 1985 , p.66 3 Once with shelter, with tools for survival and sustenance, Crusoe makes moves to calibrate his sense of time so as not to ‘lose’ his ‘reckoning’: ‘to prevent this I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a great cross I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz. I came on shore here on the 30th Sept. 1659. Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long as the rest, and every first day of the month as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long as long again as that one, and thus I kept my kalender, or weekly, month- ly, and yearly reckoning of time’. (Defoe Robinson Crusoe (1719) p.81) This taxonomy of time facilitates Crusoe with the potential to curate his time based actions which he subsequently documents in a journal. The time-table is an old inheritance. The strict model was no doubt suggested by the monastic communi- ties. It soon spread. Its three great methods (to establish rhythms, impose particular occupations and regulate the cycles of repetition) are all pregnant in Crusoe’s new plight. 4 It is as if Robinson is building his very own residential institution. Although at this stage in the narrative Crusoe is bereft of fellow participants to regulate his actions, he is nevertheless engaged in what Foucault might call the organisation of a ‘new economy of the time of apprenticeship’. (Michel Foucault Discipline & Punish Penguin, 1991) 5 Gen- esis 6.19-20 6 Eds. John Elsner & Roger Cardinal Cultures of Collecting Reaktion Books, 1994 , p.1 7 Claude Levi-Strauss, Victor Turner and Mary Douglas amongst others have recognised as Susan Pearce suggests ‘social patterning sometimes (or often, or always, depending upon the point of view) shows organization around opposed, or binary, pairs and that the ‘betwixt and between’ which separates these pairs is the area of the ambiguous, the sacred, the dangerous and the exciting. It is therefore the focus of much anxiety and ritual activity.’ Susan Pearce Interpreting Objects and Col- lections Routledge, 1994 8 In the chapter ‘A View From The Bridge’ (from Interpreting Objects and Collections) , the structuralist Edmund Leach uses these binary oppositions to develop the example of the prehistoric Mammoth, hunted not merely as a source of sustenance but also as a resource from which its bones might be ordered, preserved, processed to define the boundary between this world and ‘the other world’. 9 Karl Marx Capital Vol.1 (1867) reprinted Penguin Classics, 1990 , pp. 169-70 10 The thirty-six volumes which make up the Historia Naturalis form an encyclopaedia of nature (‘the mother of all objects’). Fol- lowing a description of the world, of its movements and those of the planets, ‘Pliny describes the place of man and nature in the macrocosm and their relationships with god’s purposes. According to Pliny the aim of all human
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