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Soaps and Detergents, CH 102 report preliminary report

Soaps and Detergents, CH 102 report preliminary report -...

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Soaps and Detergents Sam Moulton Chemistry 102 Laboratory, Section 15 Instructor: Allyn Brice February 8, 2010 My signature indicates that this document represents my own work. Outside of shared data, the information, thoughts and ideas are my own except as indicated in the references. I have submitted an electronic copy through Blackboard to be scanned by TurnItIn.com. In addition, I have not given aid to another student on this assignment. t ______________________________________________
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Abstract This report describes the process of synthesizing 4 soaps and two detergents. Each soap was put through several tests to determine solubility, cleansability, and latherability. The waste water from each soap was also titrated until neutral. After discovering olive oil to be the best soap and the first detergent to be the best detergent, more thorough tests were performed in order to choose the best overall. It was important to choose a soap that would create little residue, be fairly soluble in water, and have a close to neutral pH in water samples. This is so that the soap would create little damage to the environment when used to clean oil off birds. Detergent one proved to be the best choice due to its environmentally friendly properties, cost efficiency, and little left over residue. Introduction An oil tanker accident caused a large amount of oil to be spilled, covering birds and other wildlife in oil. The goal of this experiment was to find a soap or detergent capable of cleaning the oil off of the animals. It was also important to discover a soap or detergent that was capable of cleaning without causing a build-up of residue and scum in order to not disrupt the fragile equilibrium of the environment. In order to save money the group decided to create their own soap using alternative ingredients to the recipe they already had involving animal fat. Four soaps were made, one with olive oil, one with vegetable oil, another with vegetable fat or shortening, and the last with animal fat or lard. Two detergents were also made following two separate recipes. After the synthesis of each soap and detergent, the solutions were filtered using suction filtration. The solid filtrates were the actual detergent or soap. The leftover liquid waste was saved in order to test for contaminants. To test for contaminants the pH of each waste water was found. Then, the solutions were titrated with either hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide in order to neutralize their pH. The properties of each soap or detergent had to be contrasted and compared to figure out which would be the best at removing the oil. The solubility, cleansability, and latherability were tested for each soap and detergent. The solubility was tested using .2 grams of the soap or detergent, and 5 milliliters of water in a test tube. To test the cleansability of each soap and detergent, a pinch of each soap was used to clean particles and grime off a piece of lab equipment, such as test tubes and evaporating dishes. To test latherability .15g of the soap or detergent was taken with the hands, protected by gloves, and rubbed together with a small amount of water. The size of the resulting bubbles,
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