152c14new-1 - Chapter 14 Acids & bases...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Acids & bases ARRHENIUS THEORY ARRHENIUS THEORY ACIDS and BASES ACIDS and BASES ACIDS- proton or H + donor BASE - hydroxide or OH- donor NEUTRALIZATION- H + + OH- H 2 O Problems: * H 3 O +-- hydronium ion rather than H + * OH(H 2 O) 3--- not OH- * Other substances have acidic or basic properties also. H + surrounded by four H-bonded H 2 O molecules OH- surrounded by three H-bonded H 2 O molecules Bronsted-Lowery Theory Bronsted-Lowery Theory Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Acid any substance donating a proton, H + Base any substance accepting a proton Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: e.g. HF + NH 3 NH 4 + + F- acid 1 base 2 acid 2 base 1 AMPHOTERIC substances have both acidic and basic properties. Mono-, di-, tri-,. to polyprotic acids. Acidic versus nonacidic H atoms in compounds. the conjugate base, and the conjugate acid: a. H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH- b. CH 3 O- + CH 3 CCH 3 CH 3 OH + CH 3 C CH 2 c. H 2 S + NH 3 HS- + NH 4 + d. H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + HSO 4- e. H + + OH- H 2 O f. H 2 PO 4- + H 2 O H 3 PO 4 + OH- g. H 2 PO 4- + H 2 PO 4- H 3 PO 4 + HPO 4 2- h. H 2 PO 4- + H 2 O HPO 4 2- + H 3 O + i. Fe(H 2 O) 6 3+ + H 2 O Fe(H 2 O) 5 (OH) 2 + + H 3 O + j. HCN + CO 3 2- CN- + HCO 3-- + O O- Graphical representations of strong and weak acid equilibria Acid strength versus conjugate base strength BRONSTED-LOWRY THEORY BRONSTED-LOWRY THEORY ACID and BASE STRENGTHS: A proton transfers from a a stronger acid to a stronger base, from a weaker acid and weaker base. LEVELING EFFECT of SOLVENTS: The strongest acid in a solvent is the conjugate acid of the solvent. The strongest base is the conjugate base. Acid H 3 O + in water Base OH- in water Relative strengths of some Bronsted-Lowry acids and Relative strengths of some Bronsted-Lowry acids and their conjugate bases their conjugate bases Acid Base Strongest HClO 4 ClO 4- Weakest Acid H 2 SO 4 HSO 4- bases HI I- HBr Br- HCl Cl- HNO 3 NO 3- H 3 O + H 2 O HSO 4- SO 4 2- H 2 SO 3 HSO 3- H 3 PO 4 H 2 PO 4- HNO 2 NO 2- HF F- CH 3 CO 2 H CH 3 CO 2- H 2 CO 3 HCO 3- H 2 S HS- NH 4 + NH 3 HCN CN- HCO 3- CO 3 2- HS- S 2- H 2 O OH- Weakest NH 3 NH 2- Strongest Acid OH- O 2- bases STRONG ACIDS, BASES STRONG ACIDS, BASES IN WATER IN WATER Autoionization H 2 O(l) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH- (aq) Kw = [H 3 O + ] [OH- ] = 1.0 x 10-14 at 25 o C At equilibrium [H 3 O + ] = [OH- ] so each = 1.0 x 10-7 Kw changes with temperature but [H 3 O + ] = [OH- ] pH, pOH, pM, pX SCALES pH, pOH, pM, pX SCALES pH = - log [H 3 O + ] pOH = - log [OH- ] pM = - log [M] etc. pH, pOH CALCULATIONS pH, pOH CALCULATIONS pH = - log [H 3 O + ] pOH = - log [OH- ] Kw = [H 3 O + ] [OH- ] = 1.0 x 10-14 so p[H 3 O + ] + p[OH- ] = 14.00 or pH = 14.00 pOH CALULATE SOME pH and pOH VALUES [H+]...
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152c14new-1 - Chapter 14 Acids & bases...

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