Lecture 2 - Jan 21-1

Lecture 2 - Jan 21-1 - Hormones and Behavior Behavior...

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Unformatted text preview: Hormones and Behavior Behavior January 21, 2010 Foundations of H&B Foundations Modern Origins at UC Berkeley – Frank Beach – publication of Frank Hormones and Behavior (1948) (1948) “Behavioral endocrinology has a Behavioral short history but a long past.” short Beach, 1974 “Scientific” Study of Behavioral Scientific” Endocrinology Speculations about how hormones work can be traced as far back as 1500 B.C. can History of H&B History Hormone = from the Greek, hormao, Hormone hormao meaning “I excite” meaning Ancient Egyptians (1500 BC) First recognition of endocrine abnormalities Ancient Egyptians (1500 BC) First attempt at a home pregnancy test Recipe Pound a watermelon into small pieces Pound Mix pieces with milk of a woman who has borne a son Have subject eat the mixture: If woman vomits ►she is pregnant If If nothing happens ► she is not pregnant If If woman becomes flatulent ► she is infertile If Ancient Greeks (~400 BC) Hippocrates- Father of modern medicine. medicine Four bodily humors (black bile, phlegm , blood, yellow bile) A B C D The Hippocratic Bench A. Black bile- melancholia A. Black B. Phlegm- sluggishness C. Blood- changing temperament D. Yellow bile-anxiousness Ancient Romans (~150 BC) Galen- Roman physician •Recognized importance of a blood Recognized borne factor in human physiology. borne Skipping a few years…16th Century Recognition of the HypothalmoPituitary Modern Beginnings of Endocrinology •Science of Behavioral Endocrinology began in 1849 Science Behavioral •Arnold Adolph Berthold, University of Göttingen •Interested in what causes the marked Interested differences between male chickens differences (roosters) and female chickens (hens). ** FIRST FORMAL STUDY IN ** BEHAVIORAL ENDOCRINOLOGY ** BEHAVIORAL Arnold Berthold Rooster Rooster Hen •Aggressive •Pronounced Comb and Wattle •Muscles more developed •Crows •Copulate with Hens •NOT Aggressive •No comb and wattle •Does not Crow •Does not Copulate with females Berthold’s Strong Inference Approach Something different between hens and roosters must account for the differences. The difference should be eliminated if source is removed before differences are seen. Differences should be reinstated if missing product is restored and is functional. Capon Normal Rooster Normal Rooster Results of Berthold’s Experiment: 1) Castrated roosters developed the body and behavior of capons. 1) 2) 3) 4) Failed to develop comb and wattle characteristic of roosters. Failed to crow Failed to be aggressive Failed to copulate 1) Transplanted testes (that established a blood connection) became functional (ie, produced sperm and produced a blood­born product that affects anatomy and behavior. Charles Edouard Brown-Sequard (1889) At age 72, reported at a meeting of the Societie de Biologie in Paris that selfinjection of dog testes leads to rejuvenation: Brown-Sequard Brown-Sequard Endocrine “Renaissance” Endocrine • Sensationalism from Brown-Sequard fiasco set field of endocrinology back for years of •Bayliss and Starling (1903)-Canadian physiologists Nervous Control of Pancreatic Juice Production (late 1800’s) Juice QUESTION: What causes release of pancreatic juices? of •Bayliss and Starling (1903)-Canadian physiologists •Proposed that substance Proposed released by intestines stimulated release of pancreatic juices (not a function of nervous control, as cutting off pancreatic nerves did not block juice production). block •Named the substance Named “secretin” Foundations of H&B Foundations Modern Origins at UC Berkeley – Frank Beach – publication of Frank Hormones and Behavior (1948) (1948) Methods in Endocrinology Methods SURGICAL ABLATION SURGICAL – Removal & Replace (e.g., gonadectomy, adrenalectomy) – Brain Lesions (electrical or chemical destruction) – Extirpation (removal of a brain region by aspiration) – Toxin-Conjugated Neurochemicals Electrolytic Lesions Electrolytic What Can They Tell Us? What are the Positives/Negatives? Neurotoxic Lesions Neurotoxic ...
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