2009-11-19 - Thermodynamics, Free Energy

2009-11-19 - Thermodynamics, Free Energy - Chapter 10:...

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Chapter 10: Thermodynamics, Free Energy References: - Chemical Principles, Steven S. Zumdahl, Fifth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Custom Publishing, Boston, MA - Professor Paul Mc Cord Notes, CH 301, University of Texas at Austin 1
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1 – GLOBAL CHANGES IN ENTROPY Why does water spontaneously freezes to ice at low temperatures? S o H 2 O liquid (0 o C) = 65.2 JK -1 mol -1 S o H 2 O solid (0 o C) = 43.2 JK -1 mol -1 ? S We must consider the surroundings. Only if the total entropy change , (the sum of the changes in the system and the surroundings ), is positive, the process is spontaneous. surr total S S S At constant pressure: H q surr T q S surr surr At constant Temperature and Pressure : T H S surr surr
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When water freezes (say at -10 o C), H freeze = - H fus = - 6.0 kJ/mol Kmol J x S surr 23 263 10 0 . 6 3 K J S tot 1 23 0 . 22 Example 7.10 and 7.11 T H S S total At constant Temperature and Pressure :
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2009-11-19 - Thermodynamics, Free Energy - Chapter 10:...

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