2010-02-01 - Solubility

2010-02-01 - Solubility - the sign, but the overall effect...

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PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS: Ch 17 – Solubility References: - Chemical Principles, Steven S. Zumdahl, Fifth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Custom Publishing, Boston, MA - Professor Paul Mc Cord Notes, CH 302, University of Texas at Austin 1
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Solutions : Can be gases, liquids, or solids. SOLUTE : is the substance being dissolved; SOLVENT : is the dissolving medium. When liquids are mixed, the liquid present in the largest amount is called the solvent 100 solution of grams solute of grams percent Mass x B A A A n n n x A component of fraction Mole solvent of kilograms solute of moles Molality m Solubility : Like dissolves like: Polar solvents dissolve polar solutes ; nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes . Step 1: Braking up solute Step 2: Make room for solute (overcoming IMF in solvent) Step 3: Solute-solvent interaction 3 2 1 soln H H H H
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3 2 H H H hyd Enthalpy (heat) of hydration ΔH soln has large positive and negative contributions. It is difficult to predict
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Unformatted text preview: the sign, but the overall effect is to make G negative, thus the solution forms spontaneously S T H G like dissolves like Solubility is difficult to explain and even more difficult to predict. The only way to be certain about the compatibility of a given solute and solvent is to do the experiment. Solubility Structure Effects : Non-polar materials = hydrophobic ; polar substances = hydrophilic Solubility Pressure Effects : Little effects on solubilities of solids or liquids, but very important in gases A H A x k P Henrys law Solubility Temperature Effects : - Although the solubility of most solids increases with T, the solubilites of some substances decrease with T.- The solubility of a gas in water typically decreases with increasing T....
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2011 for the course CH 302 taught by Professor Holcombe during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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2010-02-01 - Solubility - the sign, but the overall effect...

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