2010-02-03 - Colligative Properties

2010-02-03 - Colligative Properties - A nonvolatile solute...

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PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS: Ch 17 – Colligative Properties References: - Chemical Principles, Steven S. Zumdahl, Fifth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Custom Publishing, Boston, MA - Professor Paul Mc Cord Notes, CH 302, University of Texas at Austin 1
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Vapor Pressure of Solutions : The presence of a nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor pressure of a solvent o P x P solvent solvent Soln Raoult’s law The vapor pressure of a solution is directly proportional to the mole fraction of solvent present Ideal Solution : Obeys Raoult’s Law solute-solute; solvent-solvent; and solute-solvent interactions are similar. If hydrogen bonding solute- solvent occurs, the vapor pressure will be lowered (negative deviation). For liquid-liquid solutions where both components are volatile o o P x P x P P P B B A A B A Total
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Ideal Positive deviation Negative deviation Colligative properties : Depend only on the number , and not on the identity , of the solute particles in an ideal solution
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Boiling-Point Elevation
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Unformatted text preview: : A nonvolatile solute elevates the boiling point of the solvent, (lowers the vapor pressure of the solvent) solute m K T b Freezing-Point Depression : When a solute is dissolved in a solvent, the freezing point of the solution is lower. The water in the solution has a lower vapor pressure than that of pure ice. As the solution is cooled, the vapor pressure of the ice and that of the liquid will become equal (ice decreases more rapidly) solute m K T f Osmotic Pressure : The flow of solvent into the solution through the semipermeable membrane is called osmosis Rate of transfer of solvent molecules is slower from the solution side to the solvent side (because of interference with solute molecules) MRT π = osmotic pressure (atm); M = molarity; R = gas law constant (0.082 L-atm/mol-K ; T = temperature (K) Electrolyte solutions: Van’t Hoff Factor: imK T iMRT...
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2011 for the course CH 302 taught by Professor Holcombe during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.

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2010-02-03 - Colligative Properties - A nonvolatile solute...

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