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Unformatted text preview: M arko Urlic Writing & Sports May 21st, 2009 Final paper Soccer Soccer, in Europe also know as football, is a t eam sport p layed between t wo teams of eleven players, and is widely considered to be the most popular sport in the world. I t is a football variant played on a rectangular grass or a rtificial tu rf f ield , with a goal i n the centre of each of the short ends. The object of the game is to score by maneuvering the ball i nto the opposing goal. I n general play, the goalkeepers a re the only players allowed to use their hands or arms to propel the ball; the rest of the team usually use their feet to k ick t he ball into position, occasionally using their torso or head to intercept a ball in midair. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match w ins. If the score is t ied at the end of the game, either a d raw is declared or t he game goes in to extra time or a penalty shootout , depending on the format of the competition. 1 I n every society and culture, there are many things in common and many differences but there is one thing that links us all. This is what we all k now as 'sports'. Sports are a way of life in many nationali ties and cultures. Sports are a way to get away from the everyday works and hassles of life. T here are numerous varieties in sport but there is one sport that is known in every corner of the world...and this sport is 'soccer'. Soccer is a sport that is p layed in every continent in the world, i t is the one and only sport without borders. This is so, because soccer is a sport which all can participate and enjoy in, all can be as one. Soccer is also a sport that doesn't really need many components. One may get a couple of people together and a round ball and s tart kicking it around and that may be considered soccer. Cost efficiency is one of the major reasons soccer has grown and still is growing throughout the world. Soccer is the most exciting sport because its action is non-stop, because i ts skills are impressive and because i t demands such high loyalty. Soccer is played in accordance with a set of rules known as the L aws of t he Game. The game is played using a single spherical ball. Two teams of eleven players each compete to get the ball into the other team's goal, between t he posts and under the bar, thereby scoring a goal. The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner. If both teams have scored an equal number of goals then the game is a draw. The primary rule is that players, other than goalkeepers, may not deliberately handle the ball with their hands or arms during play. Although p layers usually use their feet to move the ball around, they may use any part 2 of their bodies other than their hands or arms. Within normal play, all p layers are free to play the ball in any direction and move throughout the p itch, though the ball cannot be received in an offside position. In typical game play, players attempt to create goal scoring opportunities through individual control of the ball, such as by d ribbling, passing the ball to a teammate, and by taking shots at the goal, which is guarded by the opposing goalkeeper. Opposing players may t ry to regain control of the ball by in tercepting a pass or through tackling the opponent in possession of the ball; however, physical contact between opponents is restricted. Football is generally a free f lowing game, with play stopping only w hen the ball has left the field of play or when play is stopped by the referee. A fter a stoppage, play recommences with a specified restart. Games revolving around the kicking of a ball have been played in many count ries throughout history. According to F IFA , “the very earliest form of t he game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise of precisely t his skilful technique dating back to the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC in China.” Various forms of football were played in medieval Europe, though rules varied g reatly by both period and location. The modern rules of football are based on the mid 19th century efforts to standardize the widely varying forms of football played at the public schools of England. The Cambridge Rules, fi rst drawn up at Cambridge U niversity i n 1848, were particularly in fluential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were 3 w ri t ten at T rinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from E ton , H arrow , Rugby, W inchester and Shrewsbury schools. They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs u nconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the Englishspeaking world, to play various forms of football. Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA i n 1867. T hese ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of T he Football Association (The FA) in 1863, which fi rst met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the F reemasons' Tavern i n G reat Queen Street , London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse. The Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which eventually produced the fi rst comprehensive set of rules. At t he final meeting, the fi rst FA t reasurer, the representative from B lackheath , w ithdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the p revious meeting, the fi rst which allowed for the running with the ball in hand and the second, obstructing such a run by hacking, t ripping and holding. Other E nglish rugby football clubs followed this lead and did not join t he FA, or subsequently left the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union . The eleven remaining clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer Cobb Morley, went on to ratify the original thi r teen laws of the game. These r ules included handling of the ball by "marks" and the lack of a crossbar, 4 r ules which made i t remarkably similar to V ictorian rules football being developed at that time in Australia. The Sheffield FA played by i ts own rules u ntil the 1870s with the FA absorbing some of i ts rules until there was li t tle d ifference between the games. The laws of the game are currently determined by the I n ternational Football Association Board ( IFAB). The Board was formed in 1886 after a meeting in M anchester of The Football Association, the Scottish Football Association , the Football Association of Wales, and the I r ish Football Association . The world's oldest football competition is the FA Cup, which was founded by C. W. Alcock and has been contested by English teams since 1872. T he f i rst official international football match t ook place in 1872 between Scotland and England in G lasgow, again at the instigation of C. W. Alcock. E ngland is home to the world's first football league, which was founded in B i rmingham i n 1888 by Aston Villa d irector W illiam McGregor . The original format contained 12 clubs from the Midlands and the North of England. The Federation In ternationale de Football Association (FIFA), the in ternational football body, was formed in Paris i n 1904 and declared that they would adhere to Laws of the Game of the Football Association. The growing populari ty of the in ternational game led to the admit tance of FIFA representatives to the I n ternational Football Association Board i n 1913. The board currently consists of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from each of the four Brit ish associations. 5 T here are seventeen laws in the official L aws of the Game. The same L aws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors or women are permit ted. T he laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow f lexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. In addition to the seventeen laws, numerous IFAB decisions and other directives contribute to the regulation of football. The Laws of the Game are published by FIFA, but are maintained by the I n ternational Football Association Board , not FIFA itself. T he most complex of the Laws is offside. The offside law limits the ability of a ttacking players to remain forward, closer to the opponent's goal line, of the ball, the second-to-last defending player, which can include the goalkeeper, and the halfway line. A standard adult football match consists of two periods of 45 minutes each, known as halves. Each half runs continuously, meaning that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play. There is usually a 15-minute halftime break between halves. The end of the match is known as full-t ime. The referee is the official timekeeper for the match, and may make an a llowance for t ime lost through substitutions, injured players requiring a ttention, or other stoppages. This added time is commonly referred to as s toppage time or i njury time, and is at the sole discretion of the referee. The referee alone signals the end of the match. In matches where a fourth official is appointed, toward the end of the half the referee signals how many minutes of stoppage t ime he in tends to add. The fourth official then informs the 6 p layers and spectators by holding up a board showing this number. The referee may further extend the signaled stoppage time. Added t ime was i nt roduced because of an incident that happened in 1891 during a match between S toke and Aston Villa . Trailing 1–0 and with just two minutes remaining, Stoke were awarded a penalty. Villa's goalkeeper kicked the ball out of the ground, and by the time the ball had been recovered, the 90 m inutes had elapsed and the game was over. I n league competitions, games may end in a draw, but in some k nockout competitions if a game is tied at the end of regulation time i t may go i nto extra time, which consists of two further 15-minute periods. If the score is still tied after extra time, some competitions allow the use of penalty shootouts t o determine which team will progress to the next stage of the tournament. Goals scored during extra t ime period’s count toward the final score of the game, but kicks from the penalty mark are only used to decide t he team that progresses to the next part of the tournament. In competitions using t wo-legged matches, each team competes at home once, with an aggregate score from the two matches deciding which team progresses. Where aggregates are equal, the away goals rule may be used to determine the winners, in which case the winner is the team that scored the most goals in the leg played away from home. If the result is still equal, kicks from the penalty mark are usually required, though some competitions may require a t ied game to be replayed. 7 I n the late 1990s and early 2000s, the I FAB experimented with ways of c reating a winner without requiring a penalty shootout, which was often seen as an undesirable way to end a match. These involved rules ending a game in extra time early, either when the first goal in extra t ime was scored, golden goal , or if one team held a lead at the end of the first period of extra t ime, s ilver goal . Golden goal was used at the World Cup in 1998 and 2002. The f i rst World Cup game decided by a golden goal was F rance's victory over Paraguay i n 1998. Germany was the first nation to score a golden goal in a major competition, beating Czech Republic i n the final of E uro 1996. Silver goal was used in E uro 2004. Both these experiments have been discontinued by IFAB. Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players (excluding substitutes), one of whom must be the goalkeeper . Competition rules may s tate a minimum number of players required to constitute a team; this is usually seven. Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to play the ball with t heir hands or arms, provided they do so within the penalty area i n front of t heir own goal. Though there are a variety of positions i n which the outfield (non-goalkeeper) players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions a re not defined or required by the Laws. The basic equipment or k it p layers are required to wear includes a shir t, shorts, socks, footwear and adequate shin guards. Headgear is not a required piece of basic equipment, but players today may choose to wear i t to p rotect themselves from head injury. Players are forbidden to wear or use 8 anything that is dangerous to themselves or another player, such as jewellery or watches. The goalkeeper must wear clothing that is easily distinguishable f rom that worn by the other players and the match officials. A n umber of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. The maximum number of substitutions permit ted in most competitive in ternational and domestic league games is three, though the permit ted number may vary in other competitions or in friendly matches. Common reasons for a substitution include injury, ti redness, ineffectiveness, a t actical switch, or t imewasting a t the end of a finely poised game. In s tandard adult matches, a player who has been substitu ted may not take f ur ther part in a match. A game is officiated by a referee, who has "full authority to enforce the L aws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed", and whose decisions are final. The referee is assisted by two assistant referees. In many high-level games there is also a fourth official w ho assists the referee and may replace another official should the need a rise. A foul occurs when a player commits an offence listed in the Laws of t he Game while the ball is in play. Handling the ball deliberately, t ripping an opponent, or pushing an opponent, are examples of "penal fouls", punishable by a d irect free kick or penalty kick depending on where the offence occurred. O ther fouls are punishable by an i ndirect free kick . 9 T he referee may punish a player or substitute's m isconduct by a caution, yellow card , or sending-off, red card. A second yellow card at the same game leads to a red card, and therefore to a sending-off. A player given a yellow card is said to have been "booked", the referee wri ting the player's name in his official notebook. If a player has been sent off, no substitute can be brought on in their place. Misconduct may occur at any time, and while the offences that constitute misconduct are listed, the definitions are broad. In particular, the offence of "unsporting behavior" may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences. A referee can show a yellow or red card to a player, substitute or substituted player. Non-players such as managers and support s taff cannot be shown the yellow or red card, but may be expelled from the technical area if they fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner. Rather than stopping play, the referee may allow play to continue if doing so will benefit the team against which an offence has been commit ted. T his is known as "playing an advantage". The referee may "call back" play and penalize the original offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensue w ithin a short period, typically taken to be four to five seconds. Even if an offence is not penalized due to advantage being played, the offender may still be sanctioned for misconduct at the next stoppage of play. As the Laws were formulated in England, and were initially administered solely by the four Bri tish football associations within I FAB , the standard d imensions of a football pitch were originally expressed in i mperial units . The 10 L aws now express dimensions with approximate metric equivalents (followed by t raditional units in brackets), though popular use tends to continue to use t raditional units in English-speaking count ries with a relatively recent h istory of metrication , such as Bri tain. T he length of the pitch for international adult matches is in the range 100– 110 m (110–120 yd) and the width is in the range 64–75 m (70–80 y d). Fields for non-international matches may be 91–120 m (100–130 yd) length and 45– 91 m (50–101 y d) in width, provided that the pitch does not become square. T he longer boundary lines are touchlines or s idelines, while the shorter boundaries (on which the goals are placed) are goal lines. A rectangular goal is positioned at the middle of each goal line. The inner edges of the vertical goal posts must be 7.3 m (8 y d) apart, and the lower edge of the horizontal c rossbar supported by the goal posts must be 2.44 m (8 f t) above the ground. Nets are usually placed behind the goal, but are not required by the Laws. I n front of each goal is an area known as the penalty area. This area is marked by the goal line, two lines starting on the goal line 16.5 m (18 yd) f rom the goalposts and extending 16.5 m (18 y d) into the pitch perpendicular to the goal line, and a line joining them. This area has a number of functions, t he most prominent being to mark where the goalkeeper may handle the ball and where a penalty foul by a member of the defending team becomes p unishable by a penalty kick . Other markings define the position of the ball or players at k ick-offs, goal kicks, penalty kicks and corner kicks. 11 Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world. M i llions of people regularly go to football stadiums to follow their favorite teams, while billions more watch the game on television. A very large number of people also play soccer at an amateur level. According to a survey conducted by FIFA published in 2001, over 240 million people from more than 200 count ries regularly play football. I ts simple rules and minimal equipment requirements have no doubt aided i ts spread and growth in popularity. In many parts of the world soccer evokes great passions and plays an i mportant role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and even nations; i t is therefore often claimed to be the most popular sport in the world. ESPN has spread the claim that the Côte d'Ivoire national football team helped secure a t ruce to the nation's civil war in 2005. By contrast, football is widely considered to be the final proximate cause in the Football War i n June 1969 between E l Salvador and Honduras. The sport also exacerbated tensions at the beginning of the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, w hen a match between D inamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade devolved into r ioting in March 1990. T he major international competition in football is the World Cup, organized by FIFA. This competition takes place over a four-year period. More t han 190 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. The finals tournament, w hich is held every four years, involves 32 national teams competing over a 12 four-week period. The 2006 FIFA World Cup t ook place in Germany; in 2010 it w ill be held in South Africa. T here has been a football tournament a t every Summer Olympic Games since 1900, except at the 1932 games in Los Angeles. Before the i nception of the World Cup, the Olympics (especially during the 1920s) had t he same status as the World Cup. Originally, the event was for amateurs only, however, since the 1984 Summer Olympics p rofessional players have been permit ted, albeit with certain restrictions which prevent count ries from f ielding their strongest sides. Currently, the Olympic men's tournament is p layed at Under-23 level. In the past the Olympics have allowed a restricted n umber of over-age players per team; but that practice will cease in the 2008 Olympics. The Olympic competition is not generally considered to carry the same international significance and prestige as the World Cup. A women's tournament was added in 1996; in contrast to the men's event, full i nternational sides without age restrictions play the women’s Olympic tournament. I t thus carries in ternational prestige considered comparable to t hat of the F IFA Women's World Cup. After the World Cup, the most important international football competitions are the continental championships, which are organized by each continental confederation and contested between national teams. These are t he E uropean Championship ( UEFA), the Copa America (CONMEBOL), A frican Cup of Nations (CAF), the Asian Cup (AFC), the CONCACAF Gold Cup (CONCACAF) and the OFC Nations Cup (OFC). The most prestigious 13 competitions in club football are the respective continental championships, w hich are generally contested between national champions, for example the U EFA Champions League i n Europe and the Copa L ibertadores de America i n South America. The winners of each continental competition contest the F IFA Club World Cup. T he governing bodies in each country operate league systems, normally comprising several d ivisions, in which the teams gain points throughout the season depending on results. Teams are placed in to t ables, placing them in order according to points accrued. Most commonly, each team plays every other team in its league at home and away in each season, in a round-robin tournament . At the end of a season, the top team is declared the champion. T he top few teams may be p romoted t o a higher division, and one or more of t he teams finishing at the bottom are relegated t o a lower division. The teams f inishing at the top of a count ry's league may be eligible also to play in i nternational club competitions in the following season. The main exceptions to this system occur in some L atin American leagues, which divide soccer championships in to two sections named A pertura and Clausura , awarding a champion for each. The majority of countries supplement the league system with one or more cup competitions. These are organized on a k nock-out basis, the winner of each match proceeding to the next round; the loser takes no further part in t he competition. 14 Some count ries' top divisions feature highly paid star players; in smaller count ries and lower divisions, players may be part-t imers with a second job, or amateurs. The five top European leagues—Serie A ( Italy), L a L iga (Spain), the P remier League (England), the B undesliga (Germany) and L igue 1 ( France)—attract most of the world's best players and each of the leagues has a total wage cost in excess of $1,000 million. 15 Work Cited Wizing, Richard. T he Global Art of Soccer. New Orleans, L A: CusiBoy P ublishing, 2006. Schum, Tim. Coaching Soccer . NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group, lnc. 1996. Soccer History And Information . 2009. <http://www.all-soccer-info.com/> The World Cup. 2006. <http://www.history.com/content/soccer/the-world-cup> Laws of the Game. 2008/2009. < http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/federation/81/4 2/36/lotg%5fen.pdf > 16 ...
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