01 introduction_2010_web - Analyticalchemistrytopics...

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Analytical chemistry topics
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Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis is concerned with the analyte present in a chemical sample Chemical analysis involves: identification of the analyte determination of the quantity of the analyte separation of individual sample components
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Qualitative analysis tells us what is in the sample Quantitative analysis tells us how much of the analyte is in the sample The analytical process involves: defining the problem obtaining the sample (sampling) performing separation (if needed) making measurements data presentation mathematically treating measurement results (data reduction)
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Some examples of analytical methods: titrimetry    (direct titration,  volumetric analysis ); treatment of a  soluble substance contained in solution in a suitable vessel (the titrate) potentiometry voltammetry spectroscopy mass spectrometry All rely on the measurement: “an act of comparison of a given quantity with another one of the same kind, which is treated as a unit of this quantity” Special tools or instruments are usually required (a balance, spectrometer) to perform such a comparison
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The Course Contents (approximate): Measurements, concentrations, other…… Data Handling and Experimental Error Acid Base Equilibria, titrations Redox/electroanalysis Spectroscopy Analytical separations
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Spreadsheet basics (Microsoft Excel; your command expected)
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MEASUREMENTS Direct: 1. Measuring the length of a sheet of paper using a ruler. 2. Measuring the volume of a liquid by using a graduated cylinder. 1. Weighing by using an analytical balance . Direct and indirect measurements Indirect: 1. Include several elementary steps. 2. Require calculations to obtain the final result. Most chemical analyses are indirect measurements.
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Key Definitions Detection limit: indicates the minimum concentration of an analyte that can be detected at a given confidence level . It is usually defined as the minimum distinguishable analyte concentration that produces a signal that is three times higher than the standard deviation of the background noise. Analytical sensitivity : refers to the ability of a detector to discriminate between small differences in analyte concentration. Selectivity : determines how well a detector can discriminate one analyte from another.
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SI system of units A proper selection of units is an important issue in science and technology. The system of units called SI ( Système Internationale d'Unités ). Cf. Harris: IUPAC. Fundamental and secondary units.
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Table 1. Fundamental SI units Quantity Unit name Unit symbol Linear dimension (length, width, height, depth, etc .) meter m Mass kilogram kg Time second s Electric current ampere A Temperature kelvin K Luminous intensity candela cd Amount of substance mole mol Plane angle radian rad Solid angle steradian Sr
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Secondary units, derived from the fundamental SI units. l
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01 introduction_2010_web - Analyticalchemistrytopics...

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