Final_exam_study_guide_2009 - FALL 2009, ANTHROPOLOGY 5...

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FALL 2009, ANTHROPOLOGY 5 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Relevant lecture outlines are on the web. The first lecture covered on the final is (mistakenly) labeled “Early Hominids A: Ecological Contexts, Derived Traits”. It should be labeled “Early Hominins…” Webmaster, take note! Topics covered on the exam (flows over to a second page) Hominin evolution: Taxonomic position (hominins, not hominids), relationship to other apes. Ecological contexts: Three main phases (pre- Australopithecus , Australopithecus (including Paranthropus , Homo ) When did they live/what were their traits (just what was covered in lecture). Sahelanthropus (6-7mya) -Chad skull deformed -flat face, heavy brow ridges -central foramen -apelike magnum Nuchal (back of skull) -small brain (320-350cc) -U-shaped dental arcade; apelike teeth -reduced canines Orrorin tugenensis (6mya) kenya -femur (thigh bones) suggest bipedality -thick molar enamel -chimp-like incisors, canines, premolars -arm and finger bones=climbing -associated fossils include forest-living, savanna- dwelling forms -bipedal (?) anterior foramen magnum, extensive post-
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Ardipithecus ramidus Ardipithecus kadabba (5.8-4.4mya) Etheopia cranial remains -smaller canines than non-human apes -lacks CP3 complex -intermediate molar enamel -smaller molars -forest environment Australopithecus (4.2-1mya) E/ S Africa -diverse taxon, approx 10 species -open country, almost always near water -sexually dimorphic (males 50% taller, modern 8% taller) -bipedal but some climbed extensively Australopithecus anamensis (4.2-3.8mya) -large molars, small canines, thick enamel -unlike Austral. In shape of dental arcade, shape of ear hole, chin Australopithecus afarensis (3.8- 2.8mya) -“hominid” or Lucy -large molars, smaller canines, thick enamel -bipedal but # of adaptations to climbing Australopithecus africanus (3.0- 2.2mya) Africa sites only -1 st austral, discovered (1924) -large molars,; smaller, less dimorphic canines.; thck enamel -still shows chimp-like developmental timing Australopithecus garhi (2.5mya) E. Africa only -large molars,; relatively large canines; thick enamel; sagital crest; very prognathic face -unlike later austral. In shape of dental arcade; shape of ear hole, chin Australopithecus habilis/ rudolfensis (2.4-1.7mya) -1 st large brained species (500-780cc) -sort into 2 types -homo? Paranthropus
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2011 for the course ANTHRO 5 taught by Professor Gaulin during the Spring '09 term at UCSB.

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Final_exam_study_guide_2009 - FALL 2009, ANTHROPOLOGY 5...

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