Lymphatic System & Immunology A. Functions of the Lymphatic System B. Associated Tissues of the Lymphatic System i. Lymphatic Vessels ii. Lymph Nodes and Nodules iii. Tonsils iv. Spleen v. Thymus Gland C. Lymphatic Drainage of the Body D. Introduction to Immunity E. Two Categories of Immune Responses i. Innate / Non-specific - Inflammatory Response - Two Main Cellular Response - Enzymatic Responses o Complement Cascade ii. Adaptive / Specific - Humoral - Cell-Mediated F. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I & II and Adaptive Immunity i. MHC Class I ii. MHC Class II G. Cell-Mediated (Adaptive Immunity) H. Lymphocyte Maturation Within the Thymus Gland I. T-Cell Receptor (TCR) Pattern Selection J. T-Cell Receptor Selection i. Beta Selection ii. Positive Selection iii. Negative Selection K. B-Cell Receptor Selection L. Actions of Antibodies M. Role of Phagocytosis in Adaptive Immunity i. Antigen Processing ii. Costimulation iii. Proliferation of Helper T-Cells N. Humoral (Adaptive) Immunity & B-Cell Priming O. Role of Adaptive Immunity in Vaccination P. Effects of Aging on the Immune System Q. Problems with the Immune System
A. Functions of the Lymphatic System 淋巴系统的功能 Fluid balance 流体平衡 - Drainage of excess interstitial fluid generated by fluid exchange across walls of systemic capillaries accumulates in interstitial spaces and is drained into lymphatic capillaries to form lymph 1. 通过全身毛细血管壁的流体交换产生的过量间质流体的排水积累在间质空间， 并排入淋巴毛细血管形成淋巴 - Fat absorption 脂肪吸收 1. Digestion of lipids from the digestive tract takes place through lymphatic capillaries 消化道中的脂质通过淋巴毛细血管进行 - Defense 防御者 1. Ideal system to house first-line of defense against infection as when tissue damage occurs, inflammatory response flushes bacteria into lymphatic system 理想的系统，以容纳第一线防御感染时，当组织损伤发生时，炎症 反应冲洗细菌到淋巴系统 - Foreign substances are flushed into the lymph and blood, are filtered by lymph nodes and spleen, respectively 异物被冲入淋巴和血液，分别被淋巴 结和脾脏过滤 B. Associated Tissues of the Lymphatic System 淋巴系统的关联组织 1. Lymphatic Vessels 淋巴管 1. Lymph Nodes and Nodules 淋巴结和结节 1. Tonsils 扁桃体 2. Spleen 脾脏 3. Thymus gland 胸腺 i. Lymphatic Vessels - Drain out excess fluid that accumulates in interstitial spaces due to fluid exchange across systemic capillaries, and when tissue damage occurs in the form of inflammation 排空由于全身毛细血管之间的流体交换而积聚在 间质空间的多余液体，以及组织损伤以炎症形式发生时 - Begin as lymphatic capillaries vessels trunks 开始作为淋巴毛 细血 管 躯干
- Trunks ultimately deliver lymph back to venous system 树干最终将 淋巴送回静脉系统 - Walls of lymphatic capillaries are similar to squamoid endothelial cells of systemic capillaries, but neighboring cells are not connected by tight junctions 淋巴毛细血管壁与全身毛细血管的鳞状内皮细胞相似，但相邻细 胞不通过紧密结连接 1. Pressure of fluid building up in interstitial space, facilitates unilateral movement of water into lymphatic vessels through the gaps between neighboring cells 流体在间隙空间中积聚的压力，促进水通 过相邻细胞之间的间隙单方面运动到淋巴血管 1. Distortion of vessels caused by regular body movement affects hydrostatic pressure within vessels which shut entrance points 正常 身体运动引起的容器变形会影响关闭入口点的容器内的静水压力 -
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