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Unformatted text preview: MUSIC APPRECIATION M IDTERM REVIEW Terms/People to Know: Pitch: the perceived highness or lowness of a sound resulting from the frequency of the sound waves vibrations. Rhythm: the controlled movement of sound over time. Melody: a succession of a single pitch perceived by the mind as a larger unit. Strings: violin, viola, cello, bass, harp, guitar Woodwinds: flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon, saxophone Brass: trombone, t rumpet, tuba, French horn Percussion: drums, xylophone, marimba, bells Consort: early version of a concert. Orchestra: varies in size and configuration. Sometimes used to describe a modern orchestra. Wind ensemble: an orchestra with no string instruments at all. String quartet: 2 violins, 1 viola, and 1 cello Woodwind quintet: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, French horn. Brass quintet: 2 trumpets, French horn, trombone, tuba Piano trio: piano, violin, and cello. Historical style period: a period time during which historians perceiver certain unifying stylistic and aesthetic characteristics in the art, music and literature of a certain culture. Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, 20 th century. Aesthetics: the words used to describe the art of the music. Sacred: music used in the church in some sort of worship Secular: music used in a setting other than church. Dance music, courtly music, and others. Genre: a particular category of works. Gregorian chant: the earliest preserved western musical tradition. More generally known as plainchant. Mostly anonymous works. Sung prayer. More religious practice than aesthetically driven art form. Practical projection Plainchant: see above Charlemagne: Holy Roman Emperor who needed to unify a diverse population. His solution was a creation of a common body of chant sung in churches throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Credits the authorship of chants to Pope Gregory the Great. He was given the chants from God. Monophony: only one pitch at a time Polyphony: multiple melodies occurring at one time. I t can also be the same melody but offset. Syllabic: one pitch per syllable. Melismatic: many pitches per syllable. Melisma: a vowel that is stretched out over many different pitches. Hildegard of Bingen: earliest known female composer. Founder of an abbey in Bingen, Germany. She was a composer, poet, and scientist. She was known as a prophet for her visions. Her chant, Alleluia, O Virgo Mediatrix, was from the feast of the Virgin Mary. I t is basic ternary form and is a responsorial. I t is a conjunct melody, with narrow range and lots of melismas. Organum: Leonin: one of two composers for the Notre Dame School. Was famous for his use of the 2 voice organum. Perotin: the other composer of the Notre Dame School and was famous for his use of 3 and 4 voices. Troubadour: poet musicians connected to medieval courts. The tradition started in Southern France....
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2011 for the course SOCIOLOGY 1 taught by Professor Mullin during the Spring '11 term at UCSB.
- Spring '11