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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4: Applying Reinforcement and Social Learning Concepts to Improve Effectiveness 107 Chapter 4 Applying Reinforcement and Social Learning Concepts to Improve Effectiveness CHAPTER OVERVIEW Effective managers focus on identifying observable employee behaviors and the environmental conditions that affect behaviors. They then attempt to influence external events in order to guide employee behaviors—to help employees learn and exhibit desirable behaviors. In Chapter 4, we explore three major concepts of learning: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning theory. Each theory proposes a different way by which people learn, but focusing on observable behaviors is common to all three. Because of their practical utility for management, operant conditioning and social learning theory are explored in considerable detail. The discussion of operant conditioning stresses the techniques of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment to effectively manage the consequences of employees’ behaviors. Attention also is given to the usage and effects of different schedules of reinforcement. With regard to social learning theory, special emphasis is placed on vicarious learning, self-control, and self-efficacy. Organizational uses of social learning theory are examined as well. LEARNING GOALS Upon completion of this chapter, the students should be able to: • Explain the role of classical and operant conditioning in fostering learning. • Describe the contingencies of reinforcement that influence behavior. • Explain how positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction can affect learning. • Describe how social learning theory can be used by individuals to learn new behaviors. 108 | Chapter 4: Applying Reinforcement and Social Learning Concepts to Improve Effectiveness CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Learning from Experience: Working at United Parcel Service II. Learning Through Rewards and Punishments A. Classical Conditioning B. Operant Conditioning III. Contingencies of Reinforcement A. Positive Reinforcement B. Diversity Competency—Coaching Leaders of Color C. Organizational Rewards D. Negative Reinforcement E. Extinction F. Punishment G. Managerial Guidelines H. Self Competency—Working on BMW’s Assembly Line IV. Schedules of Reinforcement A. Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement B. Fixed Interval Schedule C. Variable Interval Schedule D. Fixed Ratio Schedule E. Variable Ratio Schedule F. Change Competency—Pioneer Telephone Cooperative V. Social Learning Theory A. Symbolizing B. Forethought C. Vicarious Learning D. Self-Control E. Teams Competency—Steelcase, Inc. F. Self-Efficacy G. Managerial Guidelines VI. Chapter Summary A. Key Terms and Concepts B. Discussion Questions VII. Experiential Exercise and Case A. Experiential Exercise: Self Competency––What Is Your Self-Efficacy?...
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2011 for the course MGMT 6131 taught by Professor Flynn during the Winter '10 term at GCSU.
- Winter '10