Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply

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Unformatted text preview: rel 9W?EEVIE§~&§3EIN£ evOe» 4—Mele' e - el e 1} l {,3 VouTube-KEETE gleoogle ea alert! aeoliasmdenmueshon E} ' ' E g ' l" ‘5" Q' 9' 1. Why the aggregate demand ourue slopes downward The graph oelow shows the aggregate demand (AD) curve In a hypoihetlcal economy where the currency Is the dollar, At polnt A, the price level Is 120 and the quantlty or output demanded ls ssoo bllllorll Movlrlg up along the aggregate demand curVe from point A to B, the price level rises to 140 and the quantity of output demanded falls to 33W oilllon. You can assume that the economy’s money supply remains filled, NSEREEATE PRICE LEVEL 17o 1m 15d 1m 13p 12p 11d 1nd 9n n lnu zoo and Ann 5nd sou 7nd and REAL GDP [E‘lllinns of dollars] As the aggregate prlee IeVel flses, the purchasing power of households' real wealth will decline J , causlng the quantlty of output demanded to decline J l Thls phenomenon ls known as the Interest rate X effect Explnnatlan: open v %fil£ oflfiéfiklfififififiiflifl (h v aus‘ié v ” ,.- aplla-Golder-trope El: mml’t Julemet tiereeevlaavgaflaao “3%‘OEA‘ _—aeele a _. el e 7} l g -VouTuberi'LETE éiGoogle ea else! E] Apl'la: Student Question 9n n ma zoo Jno Lou 5nd sou 'Iuo anu REAL GDP [Elllinns of dollars] As the aggregate prlee IeVel flses, the purchasing power of households' real wealth will decline J , causlno the quantlty of output demanded to decline J , Thls phenomenon ls known as the interest rate X effect, Explnnatlan: fla- A Households olterl hold some of thelr wealth In the form of saVInus accounts or cash. As the once level r’lses, the Fulchaslnu Dower ofthls wealth deellnes because the money villl purchase fewer of the hlpher-Drlmd products. Aooordlrlp lo the wealth em. Increases ln the price level reduce the quantity ofoutput demanded. Pnlnk: 2 - - Average: 21: n 7 n. , ;(1:l4-;r‘:ll h,.l ,. ml new. mom l 1 an, H Human» ,u new. Mum Ila Stu-Jam Que' mag-It Il’llemet EJ-zpll: 'l 4—éle'le' e - el e a} I g; _vOuruoe—xeere gleoogle ea. glee EApllaisluda-rllqueslion E} ' ' El é ' l" @' I3' 9' tineeEvlaamsgiao QvOe» 2. Deriving aggregate demand mm the Inoolllleexpendllure model The blue lIne (wlth a posltlve Intercept) on the followlng graph shows an economy's planned aggregate spendlng line when the pfloe level Is 120 and the level ofplanned Investment I5 ’60 bllIIDnl The mange llne (whlch starts In the bottom left corner) is a 45-degree Illle Illustrating the set or points for whlch real GDP and planned aggregahe spendlrlg are equal, Vou can assume ror the purposes or thls problem that planned Invfitment, government Durehases. and net exports are all autonomous. Tool tlp: Use your mouse to drag the green IIne on the graph. The values In the house In the calculator on the rlght slde of the graph wlll change aocordlngly. Von can also dlrecflv change the values In the boxes wlth d‘le whlte background by dlcklng In the box and typing. The graph and any relabed values wIII change aoooralngly. PLAN NED Aim, SPENDINE [Billions nl dnllal-al I N C III M E- ELF E MD ITUEE CAI. ELI LATG R BIN] Real GDP l— 7m lBiIIl one at dollarsl “m Planned Agg. Spending Ileal new All] Iaillmns ul dullarsl m" lBiIIlnns ul dolliril inn and "I! Planned Alla SFCFII‘IITIQSI'IM 3““ Price Level lam-i: no: 120 2“" Planned lnvulmenl in, lailh an. .n dullarsl 1W 0 100 M 300 all 500 M M M REAL our [Billlonsnldallars] W @ %5I5 o EEEE‘I fififififi: EH1] (h v £12596 v a) ,. uplla rmEEll't ll’llen’let woeeev-aavtgflaem %.g§}v _—saeevlev e _. el e: a; I g; VouTquXEETE -.',l Google ea. 6!?! Enpllafimderllqueslion h ' ' El fl ' Q' [9' fi' 0' REAL ooF [Billlana In mum] W @ Actordlng Do the calculator, the level of equlllhrlum real GDP at a once level of 120. and wlth planned Investment equal to $60 hllllon, IS $400 blllion J . Explanation: flea- A The level of equlllonum leal GDP corresponds no the palm at whlch planned aggregate spendlng equals real GDP. on Inls graph, the level of equlllbnllm real GDP Is me ollarltltv at whlch the blue and orange Ilrles Intersect. When the pl10e level IS 12D and planned Investment IS ifill hllIIDl'I, fl‘le ll'ltelSeLflDll ofthese two Ilrles DOGJI'S at a real GDP Of $4|1EI Dllllfln. One of the depermlnants of the p-osltlorl of the planned aggregate spendlng llne Is the prlce level. The level of equlllbnurn real GDP you found above corresponds to a prlce leVel of 120. Use the calculator to change the prloe leVel to 100, then to 140. and find the equlllbrlllm real GDP for each of these prlce levels. WIH'I those results, use the blue polnts (clrcle symbol} on the graph below to define the aggregate demand curve. You can do thls by plottlng the equlllbrlum real GDP at pnce levels of 100, 120, and 140. (Note: Assume planned Investment remalns equal to Its InItIaI value of $60 bllllon.) hammer AEGREEATE PRICE LEVEL AEGREGATE PRIDE LEVEL Ian Ian 15D 'ISfl 11.0 ADII=II|III an I. 'IJI] 'IJfl 120 no StLl-llelll Que' mag-ft lnlemet EJ-zpll: nr l— !aele a - al a at l is _vOuTube—xeers gleoogle ea: glee EAplle:Sl\.lderlIQueslion E} ' ' El é ' l" @' ‘53" 9' “fiestas-negagaam evOe» One of the determlnants of the posltlon of the planned aggregate spendlng Ilne Is the prlce level, The level of equlllorium real GDP you lound allove corresponds to a prlce level of 120. Use the calculator to change the prloe level to 100, than £0 140. and flnd lhe equlllbrlum real GDP for each Dli these prlce levels. Wlfl‘l those I'SUIE, use the blue polnts (clrcle symbol} on the graph oelaw ta denve the aggregate demand curve. You can do thls lay plottlng the equlllorium real GDP at once levels of loo, 120, and 140. (Note: Assume planned Investment remalns equal to lls Inltlal value of $60 bllllon.) Answer AEGREEATE PRICE LEVEL AGGREGATE PRICE LEVEL 15” anll:adl 1““ I ma lan lln aull:1ldl ’an 0 nu ma 'llEl 'lZfl lln Mn 'lDl] 'lllll an an an an n 1nd 2nd and and 5nd and 7nd and n mm 2nd and and sun And 7nd and REAL GDP [Billians af dollars] m E REAL GBF [Elllions at dollars] Eula-mum uni-A The level of equlllbrlum real GDP at each pnoe level PLANNEDAGG FENmuslelllmnsum oflfififilfififififiziflfl Ii V 31.25% v .r' rhpllEl ’ rmECIl't ll'llen'let weeeev-eavggem %.0§AV fig, l g; VouTubeVXEETE -.',l Google ea: a! $91: Enpllafimdenlquesllon E} ' ' E Q ' Q' [9' (9‘)" 0' The level of equlllbrlum leal GDP at each pl10e level PLANNED AGESFENDING [Billions nu] aculrs at the level of output where real GDP equals EDD planned aggregate spendlng (AEpmm)—that ls, where dle planned aggregate spendlng Ilne and the 7m 45-degnee Ilne mass. Ann AE am up Enterlng 100, 120, and 140 Into the calculator ylelds the three palallel blue Ilne: Shawn In me upper panel Ann AEmn to me rlght. You can see from lhls glaph (as you should have seen In the ralculatdr] met when the prloe level Is MD, the Intersection of the planned 2m aggregate spendlng Ilne and the 45-degree Ilne dowrs at a real GDP of $200 hllllon, repraented on the graph by the glay starwhele the AEplinngd14u Ilne meels me 45-degree Ilne. Traclng the dashed glay Ilne down ta the lower graph, you an see that thls Is shown as the palm (and, 14a) on the aggregate demand curve. In other words, the aggregate demand curve shows that at a pm: level ulr 14D, equllllzlrlum IEEI GDP ls equal to $ZDD hllllun. 3m] 1m] a lull 2gp :lud tun 5nd Add 7nd and REAL GDF [Elllinns nf dullirsl AE GREEATE PRICE L EvEL 1 an Calculate me other two pdlnts In the same way: 15“ When the prlee level Is 120, for example, the un AEpunmm; Ilne Intersects the 45-deglee Ilne where leal GDP ls $400 hllllen, so the polnt (400, 1.20) ls 13“ anolher pdlnt on me aggregate demand curve. 12a As the pfloe level Increases, mnsumptldn deueases 11” , mm as:- Stu-Jam Que' mag-ft ll’llemet El-zpll: er l 4—élee'le' e - el e at l g; _vOurube—xee73 gleoogle ea: alert EAplla:Sll.lderlIQl.leslion E} ' ' El é ' l" @' ‘53" 9' 9W?EEVIE§'$§E& evOe» I demand ourve. In other words, the aggregate demand ourve shows that at a prloe level of 140, “GREENE PRIEE LEVEL eoulllbrlum real GDP ls equal to $200 bllllon. 1M] Calculate the other two polnls In the same way: 15“ When the prloe level Is 120, for example, the AEphnm1m llne Intersects the 45-deglee llne where 1M1 real GDP l5 $400 DIIIIDI'I. 50 the polnt (400. 1.20) l5 13“ another polnt on lhe addreuate demand curve 12” As the prlce level Increases, consumptlon deo'eases “0 at every level of real GDP because of a decllne In real 1nd wealth, shlftlng the planned aggregate spendlng llne downward and, thereby, decreaslng equlllbnum real 9” GDP. 8” u 'lfll] 2nd Jul] LEI] 5m] son who and REAL GDF [Billions of dollars] Another determlnant 0f planned aggregate spendlng l5 the level Of planned investment. VOUI‘ results above Cflfl'fiflmfl DO a planned Investment level Df '50 l‘lllllDflI Suppose planned Investment Increases DV $50 DllllOn. ending up at sno blllloh; you can see now thls anects the model by entehhg no ln the Planned Investment box above. It "1'5 level 0? planned Investment, calculate once again the equllDI‘llll'l‘l real GDP at prlce levels Of 100, 12'}, and 14p. Use the red palms (cross symbol) to plot your rsults on the graph above. The errect of the $50 bllllon Inelease In planned lnvslment Is a shlrt of \I the aggregate demand curve to the right \I by %li!£ oflfififilfififififiziflfl Ii v £12596 v .r' uplla rElECIl't Jlllen'let woeeev-aavggen %.0§AV _—éiee'le' e _. el e: i; l g; VouTubeVXEETE -.',l Google ea: 6!?! BAplla:Sll.IderllQueslion E} ' ' ‘3 fl ' Q' [9' (9‘)" 0' Another determlnant of planned aggregate spendlng ls the level of planned investment. Vour results above con-esporld to a planned Investment level of you bllllon. Suppose planned Investment Increases by $50 ollllon. ending up at sno blllloh; you can see now thls affects the model by entenhg no lrl the Planned Investment box above. At Ihls level of planned Investment. calculate once agaln the equlllbrlllm real GDP at prlce levels of 100. 120, and 140. Use the red polnls (cross symbol) to plot your rsults on the graph above. The effect of the $50 ollllon IncIease In planned lnvsllment Is a shlltof J the aggregate demand curve to the right J by $100 billion \I , whld‘l irnplles that the rnultlplleris 2 \I . Explanatlon: flm- A The muldpller descnoes now equlllbllum real GDP responds to a change In planned aggregate spendlng, naldlng ole pnoe level consant. In Ihls case, at each prloe level, the 55D Illlllcn Inoease In planned Investment tlanslaaes Into a sum olllldn Increase In equlllbnum real GDP. You would, then, calculate me mulupller by uslng Ihe followlng equatlan: Change In Equlllbrlum output = change In Investment x Multlpller +5100 bllllarl = +350 bllllan x Multlpller z = Muldpller Another way to find the mull‘lpller Is to choose any two pull'llS on the planned aggregate spendlng llne and use them bo calculate that llne's slope. whlch (assumlhu that everythlnd except oonsllrnptlon ls autonomous) ls lhe manllnal FmDensltv to consume (MPG). For example, (4W, 400) and (100, 300) are two pulnls on lhe planned anureqate soendlrld llne when the prlce level Is 120 and planned Investment Is 950 bllllon. Therefore, the slope ofthe planned anoredabe soendlnd llne Is the folloerId: unl— _ [Ann , anm 1 (Ann , 1nn\ .a Stu-Jam Qu - ft Ii’llernet E.‘ l o 4—Ma'le' a -v ai a it I g; _vOuTube—xe$73 gleoogle ea mag EApiia:su.ldelel.lesilon E} ' ' El é ' l" @' ‘53" 9' The multlpller descrlaes how equlllhilum real GDP responds ta a change In planned aggregate spenlllng, haldlng o‘le pfloe level mnsmnt. In lhls case, at each prloe level, the $5D hllllon Increase In planned Investment tianslates Into a ilnfl ollllon Increase In equlllhrlum real GDP. You would, then, caloulate the multlpller by uslng the mummy 9W?fi§v.fl§'$§3filfl %v0e1\~ equatlan: Change In Equlllbrlllrn Output = Change In Investment 1 MultlDller +3100 bllllarl = +350 blllk'ln K Multlpller 2 = Mulllpller Anolher wav to find the multlpller Is to choose any two pulnls on the planned adul‘flate spendlng Ilne and use them llo alculalle that llne’s slope, whlch (assumlng that everythlng except oansllrnptlon ls autonomous) ls lhe marglnal propensltv llo oonsume (MPG). For example, (400, 400) and (200, 300) are two polnls on lhe planned aggregate spendlng Ilne when the prlce level Is 120 and planned Investment Is $50 bllllon. Therefore, the slope ofthe planned aggregate spendlng Ilne Is the folloWIng: MPC = (400 - 300)] (400 - 200) 10D I 200 05 To flnd the multlpller, plug the NFC value Into the followlrlg formula: Hilltlpller = 1/(1-MPC) 11(1—05) = z %,EIE o EEEE‘I fififififi: EH1] Ii v £12596 v [I Elille-I l’t Internet weeeev-eavggen %.0§AV x annals—aeasavieav-vei a i; l g; .VouTuberitEETfi éifiuogle ea: meg BAplla:Sti.ideleuesllon E} ' ' E] Q ' Q' [9' (9‘)" 0' 3. Aggregate den-and shifts and the aggregate eupemflhlres model Suppose the exlsting stock of physical capital Is relatlvelv lame, The graph below shouls the planned aggregate spendlng Ilne (PIE) and a 45-degree Ilne for the economy. Show the efiect of the relatively large stock of phvslcal cagltal by shll‘tlng the planned aggregate soendlng Ilne. Tool tlp: End and drag one or both of the curves. Curves wlll snap into posltlorl, so if you try to move the curve and It snaps pack to Its orlglnal posltlon, Just try again and drag It a Ilme rarthen Mmr PLANNEDAGG SPENDING PLANNEDAGG SPENDING ~/ asoegme Lin: «sown Lin: REAL one REAL sup ea oeeeeieeaetem Ii. v ans-x. v ft ll’llemet E.‘ Stu-Jam QD l o 4—élee'le' a - el e q} l g; -VouTube-XEETE gleoogle me: use [5 Aplla: Sludenl Queslion “finesse lien (9 glam %' OEA' B'II'E1§"@'€¥'9' and equlllhrlum output falls. unchanged. Mmr When the exlstlng stock of phvsloal rapIral Is relatively lame, there Is a relatively low need for Investment by firms. As a result, Investment wlll decllne, wnlm decreases aggregate expendltures. The planned AE curve shlfls downward, The graph below shoWS the aggregate demand (AD) curve for the economy. Show the e'fect of the relatluely large stock oi phvslcal oapltal by shlftlng the curve, rnovlno the polnt, or both. Assume that the orloe level remains AGGREGATE PRICE LEVEL ADl AGGREGATE PRICE LEVEL ADl REAL GDP REAL GDP l’t JlTIEn'IEt x annals—aeaselavev-vel e a} l is .VouTubericEETfi éifiuogle 3% area! B Apl'la: Student Question Answer It Ecol-l 9E?fi§v Ifi§v & Rim 0 REESE fififififi: EH1] AGGREGATE PRICE LEVEL Am AGGREGATE PRICE LEVEL Aul REAL GDP REAL GDP Exalmatlan: amen level. Bewuse lnvestrnent Is one oomuonent of auflreqate demand. a fall In Investment leads ho a deorease ln inmate demand at each Drloe level. Thls ls Illustlated by a leftward shlft of the AD curve Slnoe the Drloe level Is assumed to be constant, after shlltlrld the curVe. You should have moved the Dalnt alarm the AD wrve back to me lnltlal Dl‘loe o Efififl‘l Efififii' EH11 "" Ap ‘StudentQueslan - rumfllnlemel Explorer E http l/cou rsesa plla.oorlvaflservlet/q u lz?cb(:tpayrle-0032 th uleCthl’l :ta KeQu Izatq u IZj ro b 6 u l d: O NAPCOABOLOLDOOOOOLLBHBEOOQO 4—éles'le' e - el e {e l {g _vOurube—xeere gleoogle ea area EApllaismdenIQueslion E} ' ' El é ' l" @' ‘3' 9' “litreeEvlaeéuflaeo %v0e1\~ 4. Aggregate supply deflnltlons ea The shalt-run aggregate supply curve shows: 0 What happens to output In an economy when the government spends more money 0 How flrrns respond to changes In Interest rates 0 The relationshlp between the prlce level and aggregate expendlture J 0 What happens to output In an economy as the actual prlce level changes, holdlng all other oetermlnanls or real GDP unchanged Eul-mtlnn: Olm- A The shortrun aggregate supply curve shows the relatlonship between the actual prloe level and the amount of output supplied by firms In the short run, holcllng all other determinants of real GDP unchanged Which of the rollowlng are assumed to remaln unchanged along a glven short-run aggregate supply curve? Check all that apply. J Y Resource prlces J The prloe level J The posltIon of the aggregate demand curve J x The technology avallaoleto flnms Explanatlpn: am A The shortrun aggregate supply curve shows the amount of output llrms choose to produce at varlous price levels wlthln a fixed economic enVInonment. The specific elements of the economlc enylronment that are assumed to be fixed are the prices of labor and other resources, llrms’ technology, and the “rules of the game' that govern how llrms are able to operate and compete, %fi!£ ofllfififilfififififiiflfll {E V £12596 v 1‘ B ' .' :hplla ' tudentQuE'Llan , Illirmgrlfl Inlemel Explulel' weeeev-aavggem %.Q§AV _—éiaavlev e _. el e: as l g; VouTubeVXEETE -.',l Google aa a! any! BAplla:StuderllQuesllon {i ' ' E] Q ' Q' [9' fi' 9' Expllmtlnn: Olm- A The short-run aggregate supply curve shows the amount of output llrms choose to produce at varlous price levels wlmln a fixed economic envlhonment. The speciric elements of me economlc envlnonment. that are assumed to be llxed are the prices or labor and other resources, Ilrms’ ted-Inology, and the “mles of the game' that govern how llnns are able to operate and compete, The term natural rate of unemployment refers to: O The unemployment rate that would occur If there were no rrtctlonal unemployment 0 The mlnlmum posslole unemployment rate for an economy J 0 The rate of unemployment that occurs due to the effects or fnctlonal and structural unemployment 0 The unemployment that arlses due to purely seasonal factors, Ilke unemployed Illeguards In the wlnter Expllmtlnn: Olm- A The natural rate of unemployment is the unemployment rate that prevails when an economy Is produclng at Its potentlal output, In thls sltuatlon, tycllcal unemployment is zeror so all unemployment Is attributable to frlctlonal and structural unemployment. ln macroeconornlcs. the term short run refers to: O A perIod of one year 0 A perIod of 10 years 0 A perm! of tlme long enough for all mource prloes and wages to be renegotlated J 0 A perIod of tlme In whlch some resource once and wages are filled Eul-mtlnn: Olm- A The key dlstJnction In thlnklng about aggregate supply is whether resource prlces, Includlng wages, are fixed or can v "" Ap ‘SttldentQueflan - mmfllnlemet Explorer E http l/cou mesa plla.ooWaf/servlet/q u lz?ctx:tpayne-0032 th uleCthl’l :ta KeQu Izan u lzprobfi u ld:QNAPCOA301010000001181l360090 4—élee'le' a - el e g; l {g _vOuTuoe—xee73 gleoogle ea: meta EAplla:SmdenIQueslion E} ' ' El é ' l" @' ‘3' 9' 9W?fi§v.fl§'$§3filfl eves» Esplanatlana an. A The natural rage of unemployment is the unemployment rate that prevails when an economv Is produclng at lls potentlal output, In thls sltuatlon, Lyelltal unemployment is zero, so all unemplovrhent Is attributable to frlctlonal and structural unemployment. In I'HBCFOQCDHDGIICS. the berm short run refers to: 0 A penad of one year 0 A penad of In years 0 A penad af tlrne long enough far all reoauree prlces and wages to be renegotlated J 0 A penad af tlrne In whlch some resource pugs and wages are ruled Esplanatlana an. A The key ulstJnctlon In thlnklng about aggregate supply is whether resource prloes, Includlng wages, are fixed ar can adjustl In the shalt um (and along the short-run aggregate supply curve), emholrllsrs assume that some wages and resource phoes are flxenl In the long run, economists assume that all wages and resource gnoes tan varyl There Is no specific amount of tlnle that conesponds to ellfler of these concepts. Palms. 3 5 1 Average; 5.12/1 um"; a :3 slam on m n ”a” W m %fi!£ ofllfififilfififififiiflfl] {E V £12596 v 1‘ B .' :hplla ' tudentQuE'LIan , Illimgrlfl Inlemel Explurer weeeev-eevggem %.Q§AV _—ae‘+ev e _. el e: as l I; VouTubErXEETE “(insole ea: 6!?! BAplla:Studeleueslion {i ' ' E] Q ' Q' [9' fi' 0' s. Deter-alum of aggregate supplv ':" The gragh DEIOW SHOWS a deu'eaee ll'l aggregate SUDDIY (5R5) III a hypothetloal economy. Spedflcallv, aggregate supply shuts to the Ien from 5m, to SRASz. causlng the quantlty of output supple: at a prloe level M 125 ta fall tram szsu bllllon ta $150 hlIIIon, AEBREGATE PRICE LEVEL mm 175 seas (— 15n Rm 125 ------- --- I I 1lJE| I I I I l 75 I I I 5D I I I l...
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