4. Technology - Technology The Engine of Change of Change...

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Technology The Engine f Change of Change
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echnology is a facilitating Technology is a facilitating or enabling agent he geography of The geography of technology change and knowledge exhibits both concentration and dispersal Technology change is a rm of learning form of learning
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Types of technological change cremental innovations Incremental innovations Radical innovations Changes in the technology system Impact on several existing parts of the economy Changes in the techno-economic paradigm Large-scale revolutionary change
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hort rm business cycles of growth and Short-term business cycles of growth and stagnation or recession occur in even the wealthiest countries. Growth and stagnation, or even decline, are considered to have a regular periodicity at is not too different from a circadian that is not too different from a circadian rhythm or generational reproduction.
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ome emphasis has been placed on the some emphasis has been placed on the analysis of long-term cycles of economic upswing and downswing called Kondratieff waves. These long economic waves are named for the Russian economist who ither discovered or invented them either discovered or invented them, depending upon one's point of view.
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he waves supposedly can be found at The waves supposedly can be found at both the global and national scales of nalysis They last about 50 years and are analysis. They last about 50 years and are divided in half, with an initial period of strong growth, or upswing, followed by stagnation or downswing.
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alidation of the long ave hypothesis is validation of the long-wave hypothesis is hampered in 2 ways. ) empirical evidence of the existence of 1) empirical evidence of the existence of long waves has been developed on a data base that is quite thin. Reasonably ccurate measures of national income and accurate measures of national income and industrial production simply are not vailable for measuring the earlier waves, a a ab e o easu g e ea e a es, especially at the global scale.
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rst Kondratieff wave lasted from 1790 to first Kondratieff wave lasted from 1790 to 1849. Basic innovations during the period ffected machine tools and steam affected machine tools and steam engines. second Kondratieff began in 1849 and ended in 1894. The dominant innovations during the second wave were in railroads and iron and steel production.
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ird Kondratieff from 1894 to 1938 was a third Kondratieff, from 1894 to 1938, was a period of technological innovations in lectrical engineering chemicals electrical engineering, chemicals, communications, and automotive ansportation transportation. fourth Kondratieff began in 1938 and is just oming to an end This Kondratieff has been coming to an end. This Kondratieff has been driven by innovations in plastics, ommunications, and electronics. communications, and electronics.
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) theoretical basis for the existence of 2) theoretical basis for the existence of Kondratieff waves is weak, and nonexistent for their regular periodicity.
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2011 for the course GEOGRAPHY 342 taught by Professor Green during the Spring '11 term at UWO.

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4. Technology - Technology The Engine of Change of Change...

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