Lecture 3 10.12.09

Lecture 3 10.12.09 - 10/12/09 Psychology 100B Lecture 3...

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10/12/09 Psychology 100B – Lecture 3 Decisions 1. Hypothesis 2. Operational definitions (Construct validity) 3. Levels – has to have at least 3 levels of IV and a good range (quantitative vs. qualitative) 4. Assignments of subjects to levels – can either do between or within subjects. 5. If control, there is nothing different other than the absence of IV. 6. Experimenter bias: o The treatment of data: if your results are inconsistent with your hypothesis and you go back and check data, you have to check ALL the data and not just the group that disagreed with your hypothesis. o How the experimenter treats the subjects: this is particular problem with between subjects design and one is a control condition. What can happen is the experimenter subconsciously treats subjects in the control condition different from the other conditions – might be more friendly to one group, may take more time to explain instructions… etc. This is a particular problem in drug or treatment studies. Therefore, in any drug study, we use a control where we use “ blind experimenters” – this means that the experimenter does not know the condition to which the subjects have been assigned. Or we can standardise and make automatic our experiment . This means that the experimenter is instructed to interact with subjects in the same way. 7. Subject bias : This actually manifests itself in response to demand characteristics these are cues that inform the subject what the hypothesis of the experiment is, what condition of the IV they are in and what the experimenter wants to find from this and what is expected of them. This is a greater problem in human subjects but is also found in animal subjects. The subjects adopt different biases or different roles . o Good subject bias : they have inferred what you are trying to find out and what you expect and they try to produce that behaviour. o Bad subject bias : they know what you want from them and they do the opposite of that behaviour. They are trying to disconfirm. o
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Lecture 3 10.12.09 - 10/12/09 Psychology 100B Lecture 3...

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