Midterm 1 Chapter Summary

# Midterm 1 Chapter Summary - Chapter Summary Chapter Five...

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Chapter Summary Chapter Five – Reliability and Validity of Measurements 1. A variable is some property of an event in the world that has been measured. 2. A DV is a measure of the behaviour of the subject on one of several different dimensions. 3. An IV is one that is believed to cause some change in the value of the dependent variable. 4. The different values of an IV are called the levels of the variable. 5. A subject variable is an IV that the researcher does not manipulate, but measures instead. 6. A confounded variable is one that varies with the IV. 7. Quantitative variables vary in amount, whereas categorical variables differ in kind. 8. A continuous variable is one that is not limited to a certain number f values. 9. A discrete variable is one that falls into a certain number of distinct bins. 10. The apparent limits of a number are the point indicated by the number itself; the real limits are the interval defined by the number plus or minus half the difference to the next numbers. 11. Measurement is the assignment of numbers to objects or events according to rules that permit important properties of the objects or events to be represented by properties of the number system. 12. Four scales of measurement are distinguished according to the rules by which numbers are assigned to objected or events; nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. 13. A nominal. Scale is one that classifies objects or events into categories. Objects or events of the same kind get the same number and different objects/events get different numbers. 14. An ordinal scale is one that ranks objects or events in order of their magnitude. An ordinal position of the numbers on the scale must represent the rank order of the psychological attributes of the objects/events. 15. An interval scale is one in which the differences between the numbers on the scale are meaningful. Equal differences between the numbers on the scale must represent equal differences between the event/objects.

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