Midterm 1 Key Terms

Midterm 1 Key Terms - Key Terms Chapter 1 Psychology and Science Empirical based on experience Intuition spontaneous perception or judgment not

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Key Terms Chapter 1 – Psychology and Science Empirical : based on experience Intuition : spontaneous perception or judgment not based on reasoned mental steps Common sense : practical intelligence shared by a large group of people Counterintuitive : something that goes against common sense Science : a way of obtaining knowledge by means of objective observations. Objective observations mean that if another scientist were to replicate the experiment they would observe the same results. The opposite of this would be subjective observations in which observations made by one person are not required to be accepted by another. Realism : the philosophy that objects perceived have an existence outside the mind. Rationality : a view that reasoning if the basis for solving problems, that the world is understandable by way of logical thinking. Regularity : a belief that phenomena exist in recurring patterns that conform with universal laws. Discoverability : the belief that it is possible to learn about solutions to questions posed. Determinism : the doctrine that all events happen because of preceding causes. A strict determinist holds that if it were possible to know all laws of behaviour and the exact condition of persons, together with everything that was influencing that at a particular time, it would be possible to predict exactly what they would do next. Law : a statement that certain events are regularly associated with each other in an orderly way. Theory : a statement or set of statement explaining one of more laws, usually including one indirect concept needed to explain the relationship. Falsifiability : the property of a good theory that it is capable of disproof. Hypothesis : a statement assumed to be true for the purpose of testing its validity. Operationism : a view that scientific concepts must be designed in terms of observable operations. Operational definition : a statement of the precise meaning of a procedure or concept within an experiment. Converging operations : using different operational definitions to arrive at the meaning of a concept. Paradigm : a set of laws, theories, methods, and applications that form a scientific research tradition; for example, Pavlovian conditioning. Chapter Five – Variables Variable : aspect of a testing condition that can change or take on different characteristics with different conditions. Dependent variable : a measure of the subject’s behaviour that reflects the independent variable’s effects. Frequency : the number of times that a behaviour is performed. Rate : the number of times that a behaviour is performed relative to time. Duration : the amount of time that a behaviour lasts.
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Latency : the amount of time between an instruction and when the behaviour is actually performed. Topography
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2011 for the course PSYCH 100B taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '01 term at UCLA.

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Midterm 1 Key Terms - Key Terms Chapter 1 Psychology and Science Empirical based on experience Intuition spontaneous perception or judgment not

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