Lecture 2 - 28.09.10

Lecture 2 - 28.09.10 - 28th September 2010 SEAS 1 Lecture 2...

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28 th September 2010 SEAS 1 – Lecture 2 Early and Early Modern History of SEA Countries of SEA 1. Brunei – Bandar Seri Begawan 2. Burma/Myanmar – Nyapidaw 3. Cambodia – Phnom Penh 4. East Timor/Timor Leste - Dili 5. Indonesia – Jakarta 6. Laos – Vientane 7. Malaysia – Kuala Lumpur 8. Philippines – Manila 9. Singapore – City of Singapore 10. Thailand – Bangkok 11. Vietnam - Hanoi Indian and Chinese Influences on early Southeast Asia Introduction Indigenisation and “local genius”: Southeast Asian society prior to Indian and Chinese Influences: o Not a blank slate: they were not waiting for Indians, Chinese, or Europeans to bring culture. SEA was already a relatively sophisticated place o Well-elaborated societies : they knew what was good and how to modify cultural ideas to their advantage. o Advanced agricultural technologies : dry and wet rice farming, domesticated cattle, pigs, chickens. They already had established bronze-working, which was also used for artwork. Indianisation (“Hinduisation”/”Sanskritisation”) – greatest influence of the largest territory (exception of Northern Vietnam and the Philippines) When and Why Influence came : Probably as early as 500 B.C.E., accelerates around 1 st C CE. This influence is probably due to: commercial gain (desire for wealth through commerce), known to India as the “Lands of Gold.” They were able to do this because of the development of larger sailing vessels (6-700 passengers and 200 tonnes of cargo.) Discovery of the monsoon wind patterns to carry large sailing vessels, also due to the 6 month stays, this was a lot of time for cultural influence for the large number of people coming in on these large sailing vessels. Rise of Buddhism eliminated some of the caste barriers and made travel more easily without worrying about becoming religiously impure. There were also population pressures making people move to the coast and maybe some of them decided to move out of India completely. Indian Colonisation? : the architectural legacy of Indianised SEA. They could not have been built by SE Asians. These temples and statues had to be built by Indians. However, the number of Indians coming into SEA was always quite small. SE Asians did have the abilities to build these monuments themselves. Cultural Impact of Indianisation:
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Lecture 2 - 28.09.10 - 28th September 2010 SEAS 1 Lecture 2...

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