Lecture 11 - 17.02.10

Lecture 11 - 17.02.10 - 17.02.10 History 10B Lecture The...

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17.02.10 History 10B – Lecture The Pan-African Nation of Ethiopia When spiders unite, they can tie down a lion. Africa in the News: The Horn o Somalia: o The Humanitarian Crisis has worsened recently amid rumours that a major battle for Mogadishu is about to begin. o About 15,000 people have fled the capital in the past two weeks alone. o East Africa has been experiencing drought for the last four years. (Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya.) o UN is trying to send aid to Somalia but they need to make sure the aid doesn’t fall into the wrong hands. Lecture Summary o From Abyssinia to Ethiopia o The idea of “Ethiopia” in 19 th c. Pan-Africanist Thought o Emperor Menelik II: Father of Modern Ethiopia o Emperor Haile Selassie: Ras Tafari of 20 th c. Pan-Africanism o Trouble in the Main Land o Addis Ababa: Cradle of African Unity Country Profile o Federal Democratic Republic of Africa o 88 million (UN, 2010) o Capital: Addis Ababa o Languages: Amharic, Galla, Oromo, Tigrinya, Somali Abyssinia and Aksum o Abyssinia ancient name for Ethiopia o Aksumite Kingdom or Empire, capital at Aksum, role in 2-3 century C.E. (or A.D.) until 12 th c. o Use of Ge’ez Script o Solomonic Dynasty o Legend of Prestor John o Made in Europe that there was a Christian Kingdom ruled by Prestor John. Marco Polo traveled in the area and discussed Ethiopia as this great Christian land so from his popular writings, this is how the legend of Prestor John became associated with Ethiopia at around that time. Ethiopia’s Reunification o Until arrival of Tewodros (Theodore) 1850s o One of numerous kings in the Solomonic dynasty. He reunifies Ethiopia. o Centralises government o Expands the military o But he alienates the church o British consular war 1868 (Battle… he commits suicide) Menelik II (reign: 1889-1913) o First Modern Leader
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o Moves the capital from Gondar to Addis Ababa (the new flower) in the central region of Shewa o Expands the territory under Ethiopia’s control o International diplomacy and strong army o Treaty of Wichale with the Italians and defeats Italy at the battle of Adwa (March 1 st 1896) Menelik II ‘King of Kings” and African Hero o France and Britain, and later others, dispatch diplomatic missions to Addis and seek friendship accords o Menelik became a symbol of strength for the African diaspora
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Lecture 11 - 17.02.10 - 17.02.10 History 10B Lecture The...

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