Lecture 2 - 01.04.10

Lecture 2 - 01.04.10 - 01.04.10 Psych 130 Lecture 2 The...

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01.04.10 Psych 130 – Lecture 2 The Scientific Method To test a belief while retaining objectivity, eliminating bias (as much as possible) 1. Formulate a research question, from reading other research 2. Develop a hypothesis 3. Test the hypothesis a. Make a prediction b. Design study c. Collect data d. Analyse data 4. Draw conclusions 5. Disseminate findings Two Ways to Approach Questions 1. Normative development = looking at changes of groups (how most people are alike). E.g. At what age do most children start to walk? 2. Individual differences = looking at individual variations in development (how people differ from each other). E.g. If your mother carried you a lot, will your walking be delayed? Foundations – An Introduction to Lifespan development Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Research o Longitudinal – you get a group of children and bring them back over certain periods of time and measure their behaviour over time. However, the downsides of this method include: Subject mortality Time-consuming Expensive Cohort effect – there may be something different about being six in the year 1996 than being six in the year 2010. E.g. technology is much more advanced now than it was in 1996 and many classrooms have computers now. o Cross-sectional – you decide to study all your age groups at the same point in time by having children of all different ages. The downsides of this method include: The groups may just be inherently different. You are not tracking the same people over a period of time, instead you are assuming that differences found are due to age. Cohort effect o Sequential design – this is very rarely used because it is very expensive and time consuming but this is the most ideal method of testing. This method combines both cross- sectional and longitudinal design. This means that you test children over time but at the same time you compare children of differing ages at the same time. This means that you can test children who were the same age at different points in history and this gets around differences due to generational effects. Experimental Design – crowning achievement of science If you want to say that a result was caused by a certain factor, you have to use an experimental design. o Does music affect your ability to study?
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Random Assignment – everyone in your original group of research volunteers has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions. This helps to remove any systematic differences the subjects already have. o You need to randomly assign subjects to listen to music while studying or not listen to music while studying. If you find that those who listened to music scored lower than those who did not listen to music then you can say that listening to music caused lower scores on a test.
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Lecture 2 - 01.04.10 - 01.04.10 Psych 130 Lecture 2 The...

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