SAS-Final notes

SAS-Final notes - -Lecture 19FOW: Anthrobotrys dactyloids...

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-Lecture 19- FOW: Anthrobotrys dactyloids Makes hyphal loops Hyphal loops grab nematodes Hyphal loops: Hyphae grows out, then goes on itself Swells because of moisture on nematode Eats nematode from inside out A. Flavus: Aflatoxin No color, odor, or taste Toxic to liver Suppresses immune system Can cause cancer Human Aflatoxin poisoning: Africans got Jaundice(affects liver) All ate A. flavus contaminated corn Why Aflatoxins are greater in poor countries: Inadequate storage facilities o Stored grains cannot be kept dry o Fungal growth cannot be prevented Few alternative foods Aflatoxin toxicity: Chronic toxicity(low dose, long time): o Epidemiological evidence: o Liver cancer correlated with exposure to aflotoxins Aflatoxin Laws: Milk has a .5 ppb allowable presence because babies drink it EU has lower limits than US o Africans lose money Management of Aflatoxins: Quality control (removed damaged nuts) Dry grain-12% moisture Biological o E.g. cotton seed meal
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-Lecture 20- Endophyte: Lives inside a plant Grows within the seedling Grows with the seedling Colonizes corn plant Not noticeable Opportunistic A fusarium Corn ear rot caused by from ear worm Corn ear rot: Contains fumonosins B1 and B2 produced by fusarium/endophyte Horses ate the contaminated corn and it cased brain damage Fumonisins on people: N. Italy- eat corn meal, correlates with high incidence of cancer Management of Fumonisin in corn: Insecticides-prevent earworm damage Biological pesticides o Bt(bacteria): produces a protein that kills insects Genetic engineering o Take Bt and put it in corn Called Bt corn Considered a pesticide Isn’t a risk to non target insects Benefits of Bt corn: Higher yields Less mycotoxins Reduced pesticide use Potential problems with Bt: Selection for Bt resistance Insect pests Head Scab: A fusarium that effects barley Causes beer gushing
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Barriers to fungal infection: Skin o Dry o Non-nutritive o Dies and sheds Body temperature o 37 C- to high for most fungi Immune system Human disease causing fungi: Growth at 37C Can degrade keratin Dimorphic o Capable of yeast like growth when it gets 37C Immune system Few Fungal treatments: Fungal cells are similar to human’s(eukaryotic) Small market for antifungal drugs Increase of fungal infections: HIV(lower immune system) Cancer patients o Get radiation and chemo which depresses immunity Organ transplant o Take immune suppressive drugs Diabetes Most common problem caused by fungi: Allergies Cladusporium: Most common fungi Non-toxic Non-pathogenic Gets into eyes, throat, and lungs, it may cause an allergic response
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2011 for the course SAS 030 taught by Professor Gordon during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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SAS-Final notes - -Lecture 19FOW: Anthrobotrys dactyloids...

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