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lect.16.IO_Devices.4up

lect.16.IO_Devices.4up - Announcements Remaining...

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EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 1 EE108B Lecture 16 I/O Christos Kozyrakis Stanford University http://eeclass.stanford.edu/ee108b EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 2 Announcements Remaining deliverables PA2.2. today HW4 on 3/13 Lab4 on 3/19 In class Quiz 2 on Thu 2/15 (11am – 12.30pm) Closed-books, 1 page of notes, green page, calculator All lectures included Advice Catch up with lectures and textbook Take advantage of office hours and discussion sessions EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 3 Review: Levels in Memory Hierarchy CPU CPU regs regs C a c h e Memory Memory disk disk size: Speed(cycles): $/Mbyte: line size: 128 B 0.5-1 8 B Register Cache Memory Disk Memory <4MB 1-20 $30/MB 32 B < 16 GB 80-100 $0.128/MB >8 KB > 100 GB 5-10 M $0.001/MB larger, slower, cheaper 8 B 32 B 8 KB cache virtual memory EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 4 Review of P6 address translation CPU VPN VPO 20 12 TLBT TLBI 4 16 virtual address (VA) ... TLB (16 sets, 4 entries/set) VPN1 VPN2 10 10 PDE PTE PDBR PPN PPO 20 12 Page tables TLB miss TLB hit physical address (PA) result 32 ... CT CO 20 5 CI 7 L2 and DRAM L1 (128 sets, 4 lines/set) L1 hit L1 miss
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EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 5 Five Components Processor Computer Control Datapath Memory Devices Input Output •Datapath •Control •Memory •Input •Output EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 6 Outline I/O Systems and Performance Types and characteristics of I/O devices Magnetic disks Buses Bus types and bus operation Bus arbitration Interfacing the OS and I/O devices Operating System’s role in handling I/O devices Delegating I/O responsibility by the CPU I/O workloads and performance EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 7 Today’s Lecture I/O overview I/O performance metrics High performance I/O devices – Disk EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 8 Diversity of Devices Behavior refers to what I/O device does Since I/O connects two things, partner refers to the object on the other end of the connection Device Behavior Partner Data Rate (KB/sec) Keyboard Input Human 0.01 Mouse Input Human 0.02 Line Printer Output Human 1.00 Laser Printer Output Human 100.00 Graphics Output Human 100,000.00 Network-LAN Communication Machine 10,000.00 Floppy disk Storage Machine 50.00 Optical Disk Storage Machine 10, 000.00 Magnetic Disk Storage Machine 30,000.00
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EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 9 Speeds and Feeds of a PC System 1 GHz Pentium Processor Pipeline Caches 8 GB/sec North Bridge Memory 3.2 GB/sec PCI 533 MB/sec Disk Controller Ethernet Controller USB Hub Controller 1.5 Mb/sec Mouse Keyboard Printer Graphics Controller Monitor Disk Disk AGP 1 GB/sec South Bridge I/O Cntrl hub Memory Cntrl hub EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 10 Throughput vs. Response time Throughput Aggregate measure of amount of data moved per unit time, averaged over a window Sometimes referred to as bandwidth Example: Memory bandwidth Example: Disk bandwidth Response time Response time to do a single I/O operation Example: Write a block of bytes to disk Example: Send a data packet over the network EE108b Lecture 16 C. Kozyrakis 11
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