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Unformatted text preview: 18:50 VOTING SYSTEMS (Part One) Two-Alternative Voting Systems 1] Briefly describe the Mathematics of Social Choice and Decision Making Collection of methods and techniques designed to choose the best alternative from a group of given possibilities. Alternatives could be human or non-human objects. a) Voting systems two-alternative (candidates) voting systems three-or-more alternative systems Majority Rule, Minority Rule, Imposed Rule, Dictatorships, Plurality, Condorcets Method, Borda Count Method, Sequential-Pairwise voting, hare system, plurality runoffs, approval voting, Coombs Method , Schulzes Method b) Weighted Voting systems Exclusively for two alternatives and a voter may be allowed more than one vote. Ex: if a resolution passes if 1000 votes (in favor) are collected. There are two voters: Voter A is allowed 998 votes and voter B is allowed 3 votes. c) Fair Division Divide items among a group of individuals. Items might be physically indivisible (divorce cases, inheritance) d) Apportionment General math procedures to round off figures that represent indivisible items (pop. 300 million, house size 435) = standard divisor = SD SD/state population: 55.48765 e) Game theory Methods for resolving situations that involve conflict 2] Describe Two-Alternative Voting Systems and list the four major ones Alternatives are called candidates. Systems consist of 2 candidates and a finite number of voters 4 systems: majority rule, minority rule, imposed rule, dictatorship 3] Describe Majority Rule. Voters submit a ballot that shows their preference for exactly one of the two candidates . The candidate with the most number of votes is declared the winner. The system will always produce a winner of the number of voters is an odd number, An even number might result in a tie. In this case an agreed tiebreaker will be used. 4] If the number of voters is 9, at least how many votes constitute a majority? 5 5] If there are 30 voters in a two-alternative system, what is the minimum number of votes needed to obtain a majority? 16 6] Suppose that John and George are the only two candidates in an election with 100 voters. John was born in June of 1940 while George was born in July of 1983. If a tie is broken by declaring the winner the candidate born in the month that appears earlier in the year and each candidate receives 50 votes, who is the winner?...
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