01_haccpglossary - NSF/HACCP Certification Training...

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Unformatted text preview: NSF/HACCP Certification Training Glossary To get a definition, please select a term from the listing to the left. You can click on the arrows to expand or hide a letter’s listing. This glossary utilizes hotwords. If you see a word in blue (like this), clicking on it will take you to its definition. Please click here to view the printable version of this glossary. You can come back this page by selecting “Introduction” in the menu to your left. Anisakis spp. A parasitic worm (nematode) found in some fish/seafood products. Can result in the disease “ anisakiasis.” Anomaly A deviation from the common rule. Botulism A type of food intoxication caused by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium. It will develop only without air, and occurs in inadequately processed foods such as vacuum-packed meats or improperly canned (often, home-canned) foods. Calibrate To determine, check, or rectify the graduation of any instrument giving quantitative measurements. Campylobacter jejuni One of the most common bacteria responsible for foodborne illness. This organism is frequently found in beef, pork, lamb, poultry, unpasteurized milk, and is sometimes found in contaminated raw vegetables. CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cholera An acute, infectious, and often fatal disease, characterized by profuse diarrhea, vomiting, and cramps. Clostridium botulinum A bacterium that grows without air in improperly processed food, causing the disease “botulism” (an intoxication). It can grow in refrigerated foods. CODEX Alimentarius A commission under the direction of the World Health Organization and the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization. It compiles and publishes internationally accepted food safety standards and regulations in a food hygiene basic text called the CODEX Alimentarius. CODEX CODEX defines a safe food as “the assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use.” Contamination The presence of a harmful substance (or substances) in foods that can cause injury or illness to a person eating or tasting them. Critical Control Point (CCP) An essential step in the food system at which control can be applied to prevent, eliminate, or reduce a food safety hazard to an acceptable level so as to not cause illness or injury. Cross-contamination The transfer of harmful substances from one food to another food, either through employee handling or by improperly cleaned and sanitized equipment. Common examples are the contamination of cooked foods by raw foods. Cryptosporidium parvum Protozoan parasite found in untreated or contaminated water. Can cause severe diarrhea and the disease Cryptosporidiosis in humans. Deviation In HACCP, a deviation from a critical limit occurs when the limit is violated or out of control. Escherichia coli 0157:H7 A bacterium that resides in the human intestine and is passed on in feces. The presence of this bacterium in milk or food products is an indication of contamination, which can cause foodborne illness. FAO The acronym for the Food and Agriculture Organization. A department of the United Nations, analogous to a worldwide Department of Agriculture. FDA The acronym for the United States Food and Drug Administration. Food hygiene All conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food chain. Foodborne illness Any illness caused by eating food containing microbiological, chemical or physical contaminants. Giardia lamblia Protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea and “giardiasis” in humans. GMPs Good Manufacturing Practices. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system is the disciplined application of science to each specific food process in order to identify, evaluate, and control potential hazards to food safety. HACCP is a prevention-based system, because the emphasis is on identifying hazards before they cause damage. HACCP The abbreviation for the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system, which is the disciplined application of science to each specific food process in order to identify, evaluate, and control potential hazards to food safety. HACCP is a prevention-based system, because the emphasis is on identifying hazards before they cause damage. Hazard In CODEX, a hazard is defined as a biological, chemical, or physical agent in or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect. Impervious Impenetrable. Intoxication Illness caused by ingestion of toxic chemical substances, such as those produced by the bacterium Staph aureus. Irradiation The process of exposing foods to radiation in order to kill potential bacterial hazards. Irradiation is less effective against viruses. Higher doses are required to kill most viral hazards. Listeria monocytogenes A bacterium found in the soil that can contaminate food and cause the foodborne illness called listeriosis. This bacterium can survive and grow in many conditions, including refrigeration and with or without oxygen. Listeriosis An invasive infection caused by the Listeria monocytogenes bacterium. Modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) Packaging that changes the gaseous environment of food, usually by restricting the level of oxygen in the package. Non-conforming product When a deviation from a critical limit is found in the HACCP system, all product produced since the last in-compliance monitoring is “suspect.” This is also referred to as “non-conforming product.” Parasite An organism that nourishes itself by living off of other organisms. Commonly found in hogs, fish, wild game (especially bears), and contaminated water. Pathogen A disease-causing agent. Potable A type of water that is safe for drinking. Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF) Any perishable food, usually having a high moisture and/or protein content, that is capable of supporting the rapid growth of microorganisms that can cause foodborne illness. Primary production Steps in the food chain that can include harvesting, slaughter, milking, and fishing. Protozoa Unicellular organisms, some of which are human parasites. Salmonella A bacterium that causes salmonellosis, an invasive infection. One of the major causes of foodborne illness. Commonly found in eggs, raw or undercooked poultry, and meat. Sanitize The final step after washing and rinsing to reduce the number of microorganisms. Salmonellosis One of the most common types of foodborne infections. It can cause death in people with weak immune systems or in elderly people. Shigella A bacteria found in the intestines of humans. It can be killed easily by cooking. SOPs The abbreviation for Standard Operating Procedures. SSOPs Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures. Staphylococcus aureus A toxin-producing bacterium commonly found on the skin of healthy people, especially in infected cuts, pimples, or boils. Often referred to as Staph, it is a common cause of foodborne illness. Thermal Having to do with heat. Toxic Poisonous. Toxin A poisonous substance of plant or animal origin. Trichinella spiralis A parasitic nematode (worm) responsible for “trichinosis.” The parasite becomes lodged in muscle tissue and can lead to chronic pain. Sometimes found in under-cooked pork; common in wild game, such as bears. USDA The acronym for the United States Department of Agriculture. Vacuum packaging Packaging that provides a severely oxygen-restricted environment. WHO World Health Organization. A department of the United Nations, analogous to a world health department. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2011 for the course SLS 2000 taught by Professor Mitchell during the Spring '06 term at FIU.

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