ap_human_geo_note - 1 S America Natural Increase N Europe...

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Natural Increase Death Birth Australia Asia Africa Europe N. America S. America 1 AP Human Geography Outline Ch. 1 Thinking Geographically Key Issue 1: How do geographers describe where things are? Map- a two-dimensional model of Earth’s surface, or a portion of it. Place- a specific point of Earth distinguished by a particular character. Region- an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features. Scale- the relationship between a map’s distances and the actual distances on Earth. Space- the physical gap between two objects. Connections- relationships among people and objects across a barrier of space. Cartography- the science of map-making. -Earliest surviving maps are from Babylonian clay tablets, (c. 2300 B.C.) -Aristotle was first to demonstrate that Earth is spherical. -Eratosthenes was the first person to use the word geography . Projection- the method of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a map. Geographic Information System- (GIS) a computer that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic date. Remote Sensing- the acquisition of data about Earth’s surface for a satellite. Global Positioning System- (GPS) a system that determines one’s exact location on Earth. Key Issue 2: Why is each point on Earth unique? Location- the position that something occupies on Earth’s surface. Toponym- the name given to a place on Earth. Place names commonly have: -British origins in N. America and Australia -Portuguese origins in Brazil -Spanish origins elsewhere in Latin America -Dutch origins in S. Africa -The Board of Geographical Names was established in the late nineteenth century to be the final arbiter of names on U.S. maps. Site- the physical character of a place. Situation- the location of a place relative to other places. Meridian- (longitude) an arc drawn between the North and South poles. Parallel- (latitude) a circle drawn around the globe parallel to equator and perpendicular to meridians. Greenwich Mean Time- (GMT) the internationally agreed official time reference for Earth. International Date Line- the longitude at which one moves forward or backward 1 day.
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2 Cultural Landscape- defined by Carl Sauer, it is the area of Earth modified by human habitation. Also regional studies. Formal region- an area within which everyone shares one or more distinctive characteristics. Functional region- an area organized around a node or focal point. Vernacular region- a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity. Also the area in which a specific language dialect is widely used. Mental map- one’s perceived image of the surrounding landscape’s organization. Culture- the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people. Cultural ecology- the geographic study of human-environment relations.
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ap_human_geo_note - 1 S America Natural Increase N Europe...

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