ch5notes - Chapter 5 Gases 2010 Donald L. Siegel, All...

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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Gases
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved States of Matter States of Matter W Solid - definite shape W Liquid - fluid, adopts the shape of the container that holds it, incompressible W Gas - fluid, fills the entire container, compressible W Other rarer states Plasma - sea of ions and electrons, found in stars
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Molecular Model of Gases Molecular Model of Gases W A model in science is a simplification we use to describe complicated phenomena. W The model is to treat molecules as separate, unreactive spheres No interactions other than to bounce off each other or the walls Rapid motion ~300 m/s. Collisions transfer momentum Volume of particles negligible
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved More on the Model More on the Model W While each molecule is traveling with a random speed and direction, there is an average speed (kinetic energy ½mv 2 ) The average speed is determined by the temperature Temperature and kinetic energy are 2 forms of the same thing.
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Pressure Pressure W Each particle has a particular momentum W When they collide with the wall they exert a force faster particles, more frequent collisions more particles, more collisions larger container, fewer collisions W Pressure is force per unit area W Collisions are pressure!
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Units of pressure Units of pressure W F = m × a = kg m s -2 in SI units W P = F/A = kg m s -2 /m 2 = kg m -1 s -2 in SI units W kg m -1 s -2 = Pa very small unit. Atmospheric pressure is 101325 Pa W Other units atm = 101325 Pa Torr (or mm Hg) 1 atm = 760 Torr P= P= Gdh Gdh m/s m/s 2 × kg/m kg/m 3 × m = kg m m = kg m -1 s -2 By saying By saying “mm Hg mm Hg ” we mean take this height we mean take this height × Gd Gd Hg Hg Gd Gd Hg Hg is constant is constant
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Measuring pressure Measuring pressure
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Measures absolute pressure Measures difference in pressure
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Pressure is an Intensive Pressure is an Intensive property property
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Putting it all together: the Putting it all together: the Ideal Gas Law Ideal Gas Law W PV = nRT Greater V, fewer collisions, less pressure
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2011 for the course CHEM 161 taught by Professor Vacillian during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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ch5notes - Chapter 5 Gases 2010 Donald L. Siegel, All...

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