ch7notes - Chapter 7 Atomic Structure 2010 Donald L Siegel...

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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Atomic Structure
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved The Microscopic World The Microscopic World W In large scale (macroscopic) phenomena, what we see makes sense W A rock is always a rock W In the microscopic world, things get weird
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved A Brief History of Light and physics A Brief History of Light and physics W 1670s Isaac Newton studies “opticks” Light is a wave Different colors, different wavelengths (see later) W 1838 Faraday describes electricity and cathode rays W 1879-1890 Relationship between cathode rays, magentism W 1893 Thomson measures mass/charge ratio of cathode ray W 1905 Einstein explains photoelectric effect (see later)
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved More history More history W 1909 Millikan’s oil drop experiment Charge comes in discrete units Using Thomson’s data, measures mass of electron W 1909 Rutherford’s experiment disproves the “raisin pudding” model
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Millikan Oil Drop Millikan Oil Drop W Fine spray of oil W Ionized with x-ray W Balance electric force against gravity W With mass of oil drop, he found the mass to charge ratio
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Result Result W Charge on electron comes in discrete units W With the mass to charge ratio already known, he determined that the mass of an electron was 9.11×10 -31 kg
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Rutherford and the Nuclear Rutherford and the Nuclear atom atom W Bombarded metal foil with α particles W Only consistent explanation was the nuclear model W Z - nuclear charge, measures the number of protons W A - nuclear mass, measures the number of neutrons plus protons
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Characteristics of light Characteristics of light W Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation W A periodically oscillating electric field which induces an oscillating magnetic field W Characterized by a number of parameters frequency - ν -Hz ±(s -1 ) the amount of time it takes for 1 wavelength to pass a given spot. wavelength - λ - (m) the distance between corresponding points in the wave
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Characteristics of all waves Characteristics of all waves W c = f× λ If ripples on a pond are 1 cm from crest to crest and lap at the shore at the rate of 1 wave every 2 s, then the wave is travelling at a rate of 0.5 s -1 ×0.01m=5×10 -3 m/s High frequency short wavelength at any given speed W Speed of light In a vacuum c = 2.998×10 8 m/s In air c 1 × 10 8 m/s Has been measured at about 1 mph under very weird conditions W Color of light determined by frequency
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Atomic Spectra and Energy Atomic Spectra and Energy Levels Levels W White light contains all frequencies
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights
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ch7notes - Chapter 7 Atomic Structure 2010 Donald L Siegel...

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