ch8notes - Chapter 8 Electron Configurations, Atomic...

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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Chapter 8 Chapter 8 Electron Configurations, Atomic Properties, and the Periodic Table
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Orbital energies in the multi Orbital energies in the multi - - electron atom electron atom W Attraction between electrons and nucleus is coulombic F=q 1 q 2 /r 12 electrons repel each other W Shapes of orbitals have different average distances from the nucleus s closer than p closer than d closer than f closer electrons shield electrons that are farther out from the nuclear charge
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Shielding effect Shielding effect
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Effective Nuclear Charge Effective Nuclear Charge W The nuclear charge is Z, the number of protons in the nucleus W Closer electrons shield electrons farther out from the nuclear charge, reducing the effective nuclear charge W Electrons in a lower shell shield nearly completely, in the same shell the effectiveness depends on the subshell
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Aufbau Aufbau Principle Principle W Electrons can occupy any orbital, however there is one arrangement that is lowest in energy (most stable) The most stable arrangement is called the ground state Each arrangement is called a configuration W Two electrons in the same orbital take opposite spin and are said to be paired W Rules for putting electrons in Pauli exclusion principle - no 2 electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers Hund’s rule when more than one orbital is available, electrons will occupy different orbitals
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Order of Order of subshells subshells
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Valence electrons Valence electrons W When a shell is filled, we call it a closed shell We only consider the s and p orbitals for a closed shell W The electrons in the unfilled shell are valence electrons. W The unfilled shell is called the valence shell Again, only count s and p, d-electrons are more complicated
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©2010 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Ground States Ground States W First 2 periods H - 1s 1 He - 1s 2 Li - 1s 2 2s 1 Be - 1s 2 2s 2 B - 1s 2 2s
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2011 for the course CHEM 161 taught by Professor Vacillian during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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ch8notes - Chapter 8 Electron Configurations, Atomic...

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