Null 2ed chap 1 - Chapter 1 Objectives Know the difference...

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction CIS 225 Prof. Rasley 2 Chapter 1 Objectives • Know the difference between computer organization and computer architecture. • Understand units of measure common to computer systems. • Appreciate the evolution of computers. • Understand the computer as a layered system. • Be able to explain the von Neumann architecture and the function of basic computer components. 3 Why study computer organization and architecture? – Design better programs, including system software such as compilers, operating systems, and device drivers. – Optimize program behavior. – Evaluate (benchmark) computer system performance. – Understand time, space, and price tradeoffs. 1.1 Overview 4 1.1 Overview • Computer organization – Encompasses all physical aspects of computer systems. – E.g., circuit design, control signals, memory types. How does a computer work? • Computer architecture – Logical aspects of system implementation as seen by the programmer. – E.g., instruction sets, instruction formats, data types, addressing modes. How do I design a computer?
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2 5 1.2 Computer Components • There is no clear distinction between matters related to computer organization and matters relevant to computer architecture. • Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software: Anything that can be done with software can also be done with hardware, and anything that can be done with hardware can also be done with software.* * Assuming speed is not a concern . 6 • At the most basic level, a computer is a device consisting of three pieces: – A processor to interpret and execute programs – A memory to store both data and programs – A mechanism for transferring data to and from the outside world. 1.2 Computer Components 7 Consider this advertisement: 1.3 An Example System M H z ? B? P C I? U S B L 1 a c h e What does it all mean?? 8 Measures of capacity and speed: • Kilo- (K) = 1 thousand = 10 3 and 2 10 • Mega- (M) = 1 million = 10 6 and 2 20 • Giga- (G) = 1 billion = 10 9 and 2 30 • Tera- (T) = 1 trillion = 10 12 and 2 40 • Peta- (P) = 1 quadrillion = 10 15 and 2 50 • Exa- (E) = 1 quintillion = 10 18 and 2 60 • Zetta- (Z) = 1 sextillion = 10 21 and 2 70 • Yotta- (Y) = 1 septillion = 10 24 and 2 80 1.3 An Example System Whether a metric refers to a power of ten or a power of two typically depends upon what is being measured.
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3 9 • Hertz = clock cycles per second (frequency) – 1MHz = 1,000,000Hz – Processor speeds are measured in MHz or GHz. • Byte = a unit of storage –1KB = 2 10 = 1024 Bytes –1MB = 2 20
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Null 2ed chap 1 - Chapter 1 Objectives Know the difference...

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