This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Food Safety Job Aids The following job aids are included in the Food Safety multimedia training so that you can print them out and use them in your establishment. Some you may want to distribute to employees for discussion at regularly scheduled staff meetings, or you can post them on-site for employees to read. Others you can use as reference. The following job aids are included: • • • • • • • • • • • • Foodborne Illness Chart FAT TOM PHF Chart pH Scale The Five Steps for Proper Hand Washing Good Personal Hygiene Habits Checklist Concentration of Sanitizers Chart Basic Safety Procedures in the Kitchen How to Use a Thermometer Safe Receiving Temperatures for Foods Safe Time and Internal Temperature Requirements for Cooked Foods (FDA 2005 FOOD CODE) HACCP Forms Contacts for More Information on Food Safety 1 Foodborne Illness Chart
FOODBORNE ILLNESS AND DISEASE CAUSING AGENT Aflatoxin Aspergillus mold INCUBATION SOURCE CONTROL MEASURES Undetermined— depending on the dose, it can be from a few days to a few weeks Aflatoxin is a toxin created by the Aspergillus mold. Main implicated foods: Peanuts, corn, milk, cottonseed, tree nuts. Anisakiasis is a parasitical disease. Main implicated foods: Fish and some marine mammals. Clostridium botulinum is found in soil, mud, water, and the intestinal tract of animals. Main implicated foods: Canned foods (especially those canned in the home), smoked meats, and condiments. Bacillus cereus is a bacterium that can be found in starchy foods, especially rice and rice dishes allowed to sit for over four hours in the Danger Zone. Often found in soil and dust. Main implicated foods: starchy foods such as rice, pasta, and potatoes; custards, seasonings, puddings, cereals, sauces, vegetable dishes, and meatloaf. Aflatoxin is rare in developed countries. In the U.S., peanuts are screened for Aspergillus. Heat food to 135oF (57oC) for 10 minutes. Cook foods thoroughly. For sushi, freeze the fish at –4o F (-20oC) for 7 days; or at –31oF (-35oC) for 15 hours, or freeze at – 31oF (-35oC) and store at –4oF (20oC) for at least 24 hours. Properly canned foods Cook foods thoroughly Refrigerate at proper temperatures. Anisakiasis "Sushi Stomach" Anisakis worm Depending on the dosage, onset of symptoms could be from one hour to two weeks Botulism Clostridium botulinum 12 to 36 hours, with a range of one to 10 days, depending on dose ingested Bacillus Cereus Gastroenteritis Bacillus cereus. One to six hours in cases where vomiting is present; where diarrhea is predominant: six to 12 hours Cook foods to required temperatures. Avoid cross-contamination Campylobacteriosis Campylobacter jejuni Two to five days, with a range of one to 10 days, depending on the dose ingested Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial intestinal infection caused by insufficiently cooked chicken or by cooked chicken cross-contaminated from raw chicken. Main implicated foods: Poultry, unpasteurized milk and dairy products, pork, beef, and lamb. Cook to proper internal temperatures Practice good personal hygiene Avoid raw and cooked crosscontamination Properly clean and sanitize equipment, utensils, and surfaces. 2
FOODBORNE ILLNESS AND DISEASE CAUSING AGENT Ciguatera poisoning Ciguatoxin INCUBATION SOURCE CONTROL MEASURES Four to eight hours Ciguatoxin is produced by an algae common to certain tropical reefs in the Pacific Ocean. It is often found in tropical and sub-tropical waters, such as the Caribbean Only purchase fish from approved vendors. Avoid eating liver, intestines, roe, and gonads of tropical fish. Main implicated foods: Several species of larger reef fish (barracuda, snapper, amberjack, grouper) that are exposed to this toxic algae. Clostridium Perfringens Gastroenteritis Clostridium perfringens Six to 24 hours, usually 10 to 12 hours Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium found in the feces of an infected person and in animals, soil, dust, and sewage. Main implicated foods: Contamination from poorly washed vegetables, improperly cooked meat and poultry products. Dairy products, stews, gravies, sauces, and cross-contamination are also implicated. Cyclosporiasis Cyclospora cayetanensis parasite One week Symptoms typically occur suddenly The Cyclospora Thoroughly wash produce. Practice good personal hygiene. Practice good personal hygiene. Chill foods rapidly. Hold-hot foods at 135oF or above Cure meat properly. Dispose of sewage properly. cayetanensis parasite is found in the intestinal tract of humans and in contaminated water supplies. Main implicated foods: Raw produce, contaminated water, raw milk. Giardiasis Giardia duodenalis (G. lamblia) parasite One to three weeks The Giardia duodenalis parasite can be found in contaminated water. Main implicated foods: unwashed vegetables, contaminated water and ice. Only use a sanitary water supply. Wash raw vegetables. Practice good personal hygiene. 3
FOODBORNE ILLNESS AND DISEASE CAUSING AGENT Hemorrhagic Colitis Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) 0157:H7 0157:NM 026H11 0145:NM 0103:H2 0111:NM INCUBATION SOURCE CONTROL MEASURES Three to eight days, with a median of three to four days May be asymptomatic, but associated with bloody stool EHEC are bacteria that can be found in the intestinal tract of cattle, in contaminated water, and unpasteurized milk. Main implicated foods: Undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized milk and cheese, and raw vegetables can be contaminated if treated with fecally contaminated water. Hepatitis A is a virus passed through the feces, urine, blood, of an infected person, or through fecally contaminated water. Main implicated foods: Those that are not heated after handling, such as salads, sandwiches, milk, water, luncheon meats, fruits, bakery products; and shellfish. Exclude infected worker from the food establishment. Cook to proper internal temperature. Avoid raw and cooked crosscontamination. Practice good personal hygiene. Properly clean and sanitize equipment, utensils, and surfaces. Hepatitis A (Infectious Hepatitis) Hepatovirus or Hepatitis A virus 15 to 50 days, depending on dose; average 28 to 30 days Exclude infected worker from the food establishment. Cook food thoroughly. Purchase from approved sources. Dispose of sewage properly. Practice good personal hygiene. Avoid hand contact with foods. Immunize food workers. Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum parasite Three to nine days The Cryptosporidium parvum parasite is found in the intestinal tract of cattle, domestic animals and in humans. Practice good personal hygiene. Thoroughly wash produce. Only use pasteurized apple cider. Main implicated foods: Salads and raw vegetables, ready-to-eat foods, milk, unpasteurized apple cider.
Listeriosis Listeria monocytogenes One day to 3 weeks Listeriosis is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract. It is caused by Listeria monocytogenes which is commonly found in the soil. Main implicated foods: Unpasteurized milk, cheeses, and ice cream. It can also be found in vegetables, poultry, meats, seafood, and ready-to-eat deli meats. Keep food storage areas dry and clean. Avoid cross-contamination. Use pasteurized dairy products. Clean and sanitize prep surfaces. 4
FOODBORNE ILLNESS AND DISEASE CAUSING AGENT Norovirus Gastroenteritis Norovirus (Formerly called Norwalk virus) INCUBATION SOURCE CONTROL MEASURES Usually 24 to 48 hours Norovirus is a gastrointestinal disease passed in a fecal to oral transmission by an infected person. Main implicated foods: Raw vegetables and raw shellfish from fecally contaminated waters. The Rotavirus is a gastrointestinal tract illness passed through fecal to oral transmission. Main implicated foods: Contaminated water, ice, and ready-to-eat foods. The salmonella bacteria is found in the feces of infected domestic or wild animals Main implicated foods: Raw poultry products, foods that have been crosscontaminated from raw poultry products, and pork, meat products, milk, eggs, egg custards and sauces, and other high protein foods. The Scombroid toxin occurs in partially spoiled fish that have high amounts of histadine in their tissues. Main implicated foods: Fish (especially tuna and mackerel) that has been improperly refrigerated. Shigellosis is caused by the Shigella bacterium, which can be transmitted through the feces of an infected person, and contaminated water Main implicated foods: Ready to eat foods, such as tuna, potato, and chicken salads. Macaroni salads, gravies, and milk products can also be implicated. Exclude infected worker from the food establishment. Cook food thoroughly. Purchase from approved sources. Dispose of sewage properly. Practice good personal hygiene. Avoid hand contact with foods. Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Rotavirus Typically two days Use sanitary water. Practice good personal hygiene. Cook foods to proper internal temperatures. Salmonellosis Salmonella spp. bacteria Six to 72 hours, usually about 12 to 36 hours Chill foods rapidly. Cook foods thoroughly. Use pasteurized egg products and milk. Avoid cross -contamination from raw to cooked foods. Practice good personal hygiene. Sanitize equipment. Scombroid poisoning Scombroid toxin A few minutes to two hours Promptly refrigerate or freeze fish, or eat soon after being caught. Shigellosis Shigella spp. bacteria 12 to 96 hours, usually 1 to 3 days Exclude infected worker from the food establishment. Practice good personal hygiene. Chill foods rapidly. Cook food thoroughly. Protect and treat water. Control flies. 5
FOODBORNE ILLNESS AND DISEASE CAUSING AGENT Staphylococcus (staph) Staphylococcal Aureus Man is the primary source of contamination; it can also be found in ham and potato salads. Cooked foods, reheated foods, cream-filled pastries, and meats can also carry it. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii parasite Five to 20 days. The Toxoplasma gondii parasite can be found in animal feces, especially from cats, and in contaminated water. Main implicated foods: Undercooked meats—pork, lamb, poultry, and wild game. Trichinosis is a parasitical disease. Main implicated foods: Meat of infected animals, such as pork and wild game. Depending on the size of infecting dose; from three days to three months, usually one to three weeks. Usually between 12 and 24 hours, but can range from 4 to 30 hours. A bacterial infection generally from human feces in contaminated water; often due to flooding. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common seawater bacterium. Main implicated foods: Raw shellfish, especially oysters, shrimp and blue crabs, and cross-contamination from contaminated seawater. 12 hours to 3 days Vibro vulnificus is a bacterium in the same family as cholera. It normally lives in warm seawater. Main implicated foods: Oysters, sea water, sediment, plankton Only purchase shellfish from approved sources. Properly cook all seafood. Avoid cross-contamination. Avoid exposing open wounds to warm seawater. Exclude infected worker from the food establishment. INCUBATION SOURCE CONTROL MEASURES 30 minutes to eight hours, usually two to four hours Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium on human skin, and in the nose and throat. Reheat and hot hold foods properly. Chill foods rapidly. Practice good personal hygiene. Sanitize equipment. Avoid direct hand contact with food. Cook meats to required internal temperatures. Practice good personal hygiene. Trichinosis Trichinella spiralis round worm Four to 28 hours Cook food thoroughly. Cure meats adequately. Freeze meat properly. Typhoid Fever Salmonella Typhi Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis Vibrio parahaemolyticus Purchase seafood from approved vendors. Avoid cross-contamination Vibrio Vulnificus Primary Septicemia Vibro vulnificus FAT TOM--POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOODS
Generally, bacteria thrive in Potentially Hazardous Foods, which are often warm, moist, protein-rich, and chemically neutral, or low in acid. These conditions and related food safety controls can be remembered by the anagram F-A-T T-O-M. Food -- High-protein foods are likely to enter the foodservice operation carrying
bacteria, or may be easily contaminated once there. Acidity -- Acidity is measured on a scale from 0 (acidic) to 14 (alkaline). A food with a pH (acidic-alkaline measurement) level of 7.0 is neutral. Potentially Hazardous Foods have a pH range between 4.6 and 7.0. Most bacteria will not grow well at pH levels below 4.6. Highly acidic foods, such as fruit, rarely allow growth of harmful bacteria. Adding vinegar or lemon juice to food items will help slow bacterial growth -- but does not guarantee prevention and should not be used as a sole protection without consistent preparation procedures and monitoring controls. Time -- Potentially Hazardous Foods should not remain in the temperature Danger
Zone (see temperatures, below) for more than four hours during the entire food handling process. Temperature -- The Danger Zone for Potentially Hazardous Foods is 41 to
o o o o 135oF (5 to 57 C) [Note: Some health codes specify 40 to 145 F (4.4 to 62.8 C) as the temperature Danger Zone for Potentially Hazardous Foods.] However, since bacteria can survive and some grow at lower temperatures, refrigeration is not absolute protection. Discard food if it is past its expiration date. Oxygen -- Some bacteria require oxygen to grow, while others require an
oxygen-free environment. However, most of the bacteria that can cause foodborne illness can grow either with or without free oxygen. Moisture -- The availability of water in food is expressed as water activity (Aw).
The lowest Aw in which harmful bacteria will grow is 0.85. Most potentially hazardous foods have water activity that are in a range of 0.97 to 0.99 -- values that are ideal for bacterial growth. Water activity can be reduced to safer levels by freezing, dehydrating, adding sugar or salt, or cooking. Dry foods, such as beans, rice, and pasta, become potentially hazardous when water is added. pH Scale pH is the unit of measurement for the hydrogen ion concentration in foods. This concentration results in foods being acidic (tart or sour), or alkaline, meaning the acids have been neutralized. When the pH value of a food is less than 7, it is acidic. If the pH value of a food is more than 7, it is alkaline, and if the pH value is 7, the food is considered neutral. Neutral Acidic Slightly acidic Slightly alkaline Alkaline 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pH scale
Examples of acidic foods include: Citrus juices Tomatoes Rhubarb Cranberries Examples of neutral foods include: Milk Meats Chicken Fish Examples of alkaline foods include: Egg whites Soda crackers Black olives It is important to be aware of the pH level of foods, since bacteria grow best when foods are slightly acidic, neutral, or slightly alkaline, and contain enough water for microorganisms to grow. The Five Steps for Proper Handwashing
The basic practice of hand washing is the single most important action that can be taken to prevent the spread of disease. 1. Use warm water. 2. Wet hands and exposed arms up to the elbow. 3. Apply an approved hand washing soap. Rub hands and forearms briskly for at least 20 seconds. 4. Rinse thoroughly under clean, warm water. 5. Dry hands and arms by sanitary means, such as a disposable paper towel or an air-drying device.
Wash your hands: * Before starting work * Before putting on gloves * After using the restroom * After touching your hair, face, or body * After eating, drinking, smoking, or touching gum * Every time you enter a food preparation area * After working with raw food * After cleaning or taking out the garbage * After touching anything that might contaminate your hands After you have washed your hands, get in the habit of using a paper towel to turn off the faucets and touch the doorknobs. Good Personal Hygiene Habits
• • • • • • • • • • Bathe daily with soap and water. Use deodorant. Keep fingernails clean, short, and well trimmed. Do not use fake nails or nail polish. Wear an appropriate hairstyle, and restrain hair properly. Wear clean clothing on the job. Use clean, protective clothing, such as an apron, whenever necessary. Never use an apron as a hand towel. Limit jewelry; better yet, wear none at all. Cover cuts or sores with a water-resistant bandage, and change bandages often. Wear plastic gloves if the cut or sore is on your hand. Do not come to work if you are ill. Stay home if you have a fever or diarrhea, if you are vomiting, or if you are sneezing and coughing. When handling foods, DO NOT: • • • • • • Sneeze or cough. Scratch or touch your head, hair, skin, or mouth. Drip sweat onto equipment or food. Wipe sweat with your hands, or cloths that are used on food contact surfaces. Wear gloves away from the food preparation area. Engage in activities such as smoking, eating, or chewing gum, which can result in hand-to-mouth contact. If a sneeze or cough is unavoidable, use a disposable tissue, and wash your hands. When a cough is unavoidable and you do not have access to a tissue, cover your mouth and nose with your upper arm—never with your hands. When handling foods, DO: • • • Wear plastic gloves when preparing ready to eat foods. Change gloves every time you change a food preparation job. Wash hands and change gloves after any action that might contaminate foods, such as coughing, handling raw meat or poultry, picking up objects from the floor, or putting out trash. Concentration of Sanitizers
Product directions always state the amount of sanitizer to add to water. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions on how to mix proper concentrations. Then, use a test kit to measure the strength of sanitizing solutions during use. Sanitize utensils and equipment by completely immersing (dipping) them in a clean sanitizing solution for at least one minute. A sanitizing solution may contain one of the following: • • A minimum of 50 parts per million (ppm) of chlorine mixed with water. A minimum of 12.5 ppm of iodine mixed with water with a pH value of below 5.0. • For quaternary ammonium compounds, follow the manufacturer's instructions. The minimum temperature of a chlorine solution is based on the concentration and pH of the solution. Minimum Concentration Parts per million (ppm) 25 50 100 Minimum Temperature (oF) pH 8 to 1 pH 8 or less 120 100 55 120 75 55 Keep water at the required temperature when using chemical sanitizers. Do not go over the maximum recommended strength for sanitizers. Quaternary ammonium compounds are not recommended at levels above 200 ppm. Do NOT rinse after sanitizing. Sanitizing is the final step in the wash-rinsesanitize cycle. Basic Safety Procedures In the Kitchen
How to Minimize Cuts • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Use the right knife for the right job. Never use knives as screwdrivers, can-openers, or box openers. Keep knives sharp. Use knives with built-in guards or shaped handles. Wear protective mesh gloves and cuff guards. Cut away from the body; never toward it. Never reach blindly for a knife. If you drop a knife, don’t grab for it. Get out of the way. Store all sharp knives in a knife holder. If stored in a drawer, place knives in a rack. Wash all sharp tools and knives separately. Throw out chipped and broken china, glassware, and utensils. Replace damaged equipment. Read the manufacturer’s instructions before operating equipment, such as a meat slicer. How to Minimize Burns • • • • • • • • • • • • Use dry, flameproof potholders. Before lifting, check that pot and panhandles are sturdy. Remove lids carefully; allow steam to escape away from face and hands. Turn the handle of the pan inward on the stove; be sure it is not over an open flame or too near heat. Keep doors of stoves, ovens, and broilers closed; do not touch hot edges. Avoid hot edges of heat lamps. Never place food items with excess moisture directly into hot shortening. Never clean glassware, dishes, ovens, stoves, or equipment until they have cooled. Keep stovetops and hoods free of grease. Wear gloves and an apron for protection when changing or filtering shortening. Keep papers and other flammable materials away from hot areas. Read the manufacturer’s instructions before operating coffee urns and other hot beverage machines. How to Use a Thermometer
Use thermometers to check the temperatures of: • • • • Incoming shipments of food products. Final cooking temperatures. Cooling temperatures. Food in refrigerators, freezers, and hot holding units. When testing the temperature of food: • • • • • Insert the clean probe into the food up to the dimple. Test various parts of a roast or bird, including the thickest part. Do not touch bones or the bottom or sides of the container. Test in the center of a casserole, pot, or chafing dish. Clean the thermometer after use. Cleaning a thermometer: Sanitize a thermometer with either rubbing alcohol or a sanitizing solution. The most effective sanitizing method is to dip the thermometer stem in boiling water for seven to ten seconds. To test the temperature of vacuum-packed foods, insert the thermometer between two packages. With other packages or bags, insert the thermometer in the fold. Insert the thermometer into one carton or bottle to test a shipment. To monitor the temperature of equipment, use a mounted thermometer. Safe Receiving Temperatures for Foods (FDA 2005 Food Code) Product Chilled products Frozen products Hot foods Fresh meat Frozen meat Fresh poultry Fresh fish Milk, cheese, butter Safe Receiving Temperature At or below 41oF (5oC) At or below 0oF (-18oC) 135oF (57oC) or above 41oF (5oC) or below 0oF (-18oC) or below Below 41oF (5oC) 41oF (5oC) or below 41oF (5oC) or below
Some jurisdictions allow a temperature of 45oF o (7.2 C) or below Bakery products with custard or cream fillings Eggs 41oF (5oC) 41oF (5oC) Some jurisdictions allow a temperature of 45oF o (7.2 C) or below Vacuum-packed PHFs Vacuum-packed fish At or below 41oF (5oC) 38oF (4oC) or below Safe Time and Internal Temperature Requirements for Cooked Foods (FDA 2005 Food Code)
Product Most raw animal foods, such as shell eggs, fish, and meats Whole beef roasts, rare roast beef and corned beef Pork, roast pork, pork products, and commercially raised game Ground beef, needle-tenderized beef and pork, and eggs not cooked for immediate use Ratites and ground or chopped fish Whole or ground poultry, stuffed fish, stuffed meats, stuffed pasta, and wild game Fruits/vegetables for hot holding Microwave cooked raw animal foods Commercially processed ready-to-eat foods for hot-holding Steeped tea Automatic ice tea and coffee Non-cooked dairy products Thawing PHF (TCS) under refrigeration Submerged under running water Cooling Cooked foods Safe Time & Internal Temperature 145oF (63oC) for 15 seconds 130oF (54oC) for 112 minutes, or 140oF (60oC) for 12 minutes or 146oF (63oC) for 3 minutes 145oF (68oC) for 15 seconds 155oF (68oC) for 15 seconds, or to 157oF (69oC) 155oF (68oC) for 15 seconds 165oF (74oC) for 15 seconds 135oF (57oC) 165oF (74oC) in all parts; allow to stand covered for 2 minutes At least 135oF (57oC) Water temperature of 175oF (80oC) for a minimum of 5 minutes Water temperature of 195oF (91oC) Serve at 41oF (5oC) or less 41oF (5oC) or less 70oF (21oC) or below The two-stage cool-down process: 135oF (57oC) to 70oF (21oC) within two hours, and 70oF (21oC) to 41oF (5oC) or below within four hours Reheating Leftovers Hot-holding Eggs Hot foods Cold-holding Cold foods 165oF (74oC) within two hours 155oF (68oC) or higher for 15 seconds and held at 135oF (57oC) or above 135oF (57oC) or above 41oF (5oC) or less HACCP System and Forms
There are seven steps to the HACCP system: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Conduct a Hazard Analysis Determine Critical Control Points (CCP's) Establish Critical Limits Establish Monitoring Procedures Establish Corrective Actions Establish Verification Procedures Establish Record-keeping and Documentation Procedures The following sample HACCP forms are included with this program. Customize them to meet the needs of your establishment, and use them to implement your own HACCP plan. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Flowchart Worksheet Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Monitor Worksheet Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Monitoring Procedure Report Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Flowchart Worksheet
Date: Product: Time Started: Time Ended: Ingredients: Steps Problem/Hazard CCP Control/Solution Comments: Signature: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Monitor Worksheet
Product: Ingredients: Date: Time Temperature Time Start: Action Time End: Time/Temperature (°F) Chart
190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 70 60 40 Signatures of observers: 30 __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 0 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 12 14 Time in Hours Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Monitoring Procedure Report (pg. 1)
New York State Department of Health Bureau of Community Sanitation and Food Protection THIS FORM CONSISTS OF TWO PAGES AND BOTH MUST BE COMPLETED
County Dist. Est. No. Month Day Year Establishment Name _______________________________Operator Name______________________ Address______________________________________________________________________________ (T)(C)(V)_____________________________________________County___________________________ Food_________________________________________________________________________________
PROCESS (STEP) CIRCLE CCPs CRITERIA FOR CONTROL MONITORING PROCEDURE OR WHAT TO LOOK FOR ACTIONS TO TAKE WHEN CRITERIA NOT MET RECEIVING/ STORING Approved sources (inspected) Shellfish tag Raw/Cooked/Separated in storage Refrigerate at less than or o equal to 45 F Shellfish tags available Shellfish tags complete Measure food temperature No raw foods stored above cooked or ready to eat foods Discard food Return food Separate raw and cooked food Discard cooked food contaminated by raw food Food temperature: o More than 45 F more than 2 hours, discard food o More than 70 F, discard food Food temperature: o More than or equal to 70 F, discard o More than 45 F for more than two hours, discard THAWING Under refrigeration Under running water less o than 70 F Microwave Less than 3 lbs., cooked frozen More than 3 lbs., do not cook until thawed Food temperature less than or o equal to 45 F Observe method Measure food temperature PROCESSING PRIOR TO COOKING Observe quantity of food at room temperature Observe time food held at room temperature Measure food temperature at thickest part Food temperature: o More than 45 F for more than 2 hours, discard food o More than 70 F discard food Continue cooking until food temperature at thickest part is more than or equal o to ______ F Food temperature: o o 135 F - 120 F More than or equal to 2 hours, discard; less than 2 o hours, reheat to 165 F and o hold at 135 F o o 120 F - 45 F More than or equal to 2 hours, discard; less than 2 o hours, reheat to 165 F and o hold at 135 F COOKING Temperature to kill pathogens Food temperature at thickest part more than or equal o to ______ F Food temperature at thickest part more than or equal o to ______ F HOT HOLDING Measure food at thickest part during hot holding every ______ minutes Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Monitoring Procedure Report (pg. 2)
COOLING Food 120 F to 70 F in 2 hours: o o 70 F to 45 F in 4 additional hours by the following methods: (check all that apply) Product depth less than or equal to 4" Ice water bath and stirring Solid piece less than or equal to 6 lbs. Rapid chill refrigeration No covers until cold Prevent contamination by: Ill workers not working Worker hands not touching ready to eat foods Worker hands washed Cold potentially hazardous foods at temperature o less than or equal to 45 F Hot potentially hazardous foods at temperature o more than or equal to 135 F Equipment and utensils clean and sanitized
o o Measure temperature during cooling every _____ minutes Food depth Food iced Food stirred Food size Food placed in rapid chill refrigeration unit Food uncovered Food temperature: o o 120 F - 70 F More than 2 hours, discard food o o 70 F - 45 F More than 4 hours, discard o 45 F or less but cooled too slowly, discard food PROCESSING SLICING DEBONING MIXING DICING ASSEMBLING SERVING Observe: Worker's health Use of gloves, utensils Handwashing technique Wash & sanitize equipment and utensils Use pre-chilled ingredients for cold foods Minimize quantity of food at room temperature Measure food temperature If yes to the following, discard: Ill worker is working Direct hand contact with ready to eat food observed Cold potentially hazardous o food: more than 45 F more than or equal to 2 hours, discard; o more than 70 F, discard Hot potentially hazardous food: o o 135 F - 120 F More than or equal to 2 hours, discard; less than 2 o hours, reheat to 165 F and o hold at 135 F o o 120 F - 45 F More than or equal to 2 hours, discard; less than 2 o hours, reheat to 165 F and o hold at 135 F If yes to the following, discard o or reheat to 165 F: Raw food contaminated other foods Equipment/utensils are contaminated Food temperature less than o 165 F, continue reheating REHEATING Food temperatures at thickest part more than or equal o to 165 F Food temperature More than or equal to o 135 F at thickest part Less than or equal to o 45 F at thickest part Measure food temperature during reheating HOLDING FOOD, HOT/COLD TRANSPORTING FOOD Measured food temperature during holding every ______ minutes Hot holding potentially hazardous food: o o 135 F to 120 F More than or equal to 2 hours, discard; less than o 2 hours, reheat to 165 F, and o hold at 135 F o o 120 F to 45 F More than or equal to 2 hours, discard; less than o 2 hours, reheat to 165 F and o hold at 135 F Cold holding potentially hazardous food: o o 45 F to 70 F More than or equal to 2 hours, discard; less than 2 hours, serve or refrigerate o More than or equal to 70 F, discard I have read the above food preparation procedures and agree to follow and monitor the critical control points and to take appropriate corrective action when needed. If I want to make any changes, I will notify the Health Department prior to such a change. Signature of person in charge ________________________________________________________________________________________ Signature of inspector ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Contacts for More Information On Food Safety
You may want to start a resource file with laws, codes, and materials that provide useful information on food safety. The following contacts can help you get started and answer any of your questions. FEDERAL REGULATORY AGENCIES Regulation by federal government agencies focus on the sources of food and protection of the products until they are purchased, processed, and consumed by the public. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) The CDC is charged with protecting the public health through the prevention and control of diseases, and responding to public health emergencies. The CDC monitors foodborne illness, and is located in Atlanta, Georgia. This agency is responsible for determining how outbreaks occur, and publishes statistical information about the incidence and severity of illnesses. The CDC also supplies educational materials about sanitation. CDC 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30333 (404) 639-2206 Foodborne Illness Line (24-hour recorded information) (404) 332-4597 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) The mission of this agency is to control and battle pollution related to the air, water, solid waste, pesticides, radiation, and toxic substances. The agency works with state and local governments to wage a coordinated attack on environmental pollution. It conducts research and monitoring activities, sets standards, and enforces anti-pollution activities. United States Environmental Protection Agency 401 M Street SW Washington, DC 20460 (202) 260-2090 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) The activities of the FDA are directed at protecting consumers against impure and unsafe foods, drugs, cosmetics, and other potential hazards. The FDA develops and enforces regulations for the safety, composition, quality, nutritional content, and labeling of foods, food additives, colors, cosmetics, drugs, and medical devices. It also enforces mandatory provisions and regulations concerning food service operations by interstate carriers. The FDA is a resource for state and local agencies that require assistance in formulating local codes and regulations. This agency publishes documents on food service sanitation, lists of food additives and the amounts allowed in food products. It also publishes the Food Code, in cooperation with the Department of Health and Human Services, which provides guidance for the food service industry. FDA INTERNET: http://www.usda.gov.com FDA Quarterly Newsletter: The Food Safety Educator USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (202) 690-0351 U.S. Public Health Services, for a copy of the Food Code FDA #PB 94-113941AS (703) 487-4150 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration 200 C Street, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20204 The Milk Safety Branch, HFF-346, provides the IMS List Sanitation Compliance and Enforcement Ratings of Interstate Milk Shippers. The Shellfish Sanitation Branch, HFF0513, provides the Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers List. FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) Retail Food Protection Branch (HFF-342) 200 C Street S.W. Washington, DC 20204-0001 (202) 205-8140 FDA Division of HACCP Programs 200 C Street SW Washington, DC 20204 (202) 205-4231 Industry Guidance Branch (5425 FB8) 200 C Street S.W. Washington, DC 20204 (202) 205-5251 FDA Education and Training Branch (HCF-153) 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 (301) 443-5871 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) OSHA was established after the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The agency develops and promotes occupational safety and health standards, develops and issues regulations, conducts investigations and inspections, and issues citations. It also proposes penalties for non-compliance with safety and health standards and regulations. Employers are required by OSHA to provide employees with safe working conditions. OSHA sets safety standards for a hazard-free working environment, safe equipment, and job procedures. OSHA 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Room N-3101 Washington, DC 20210 1-800-424-5156 (202) 219-4667 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Through its inspection and grading services, the USDA works to provide safeguards that ensure standards of quality in our daily food supply, and it also protects the soil, water, forests, and other natural resources. The agency works to improve food production and eliminate malnutrition. Inspection of food processing plants and supervision of labeling practices is shared by the USDA and the FDA. The USDA inspects meat, meat products, poultry, poultry products, eggs, egg products, dairy products, fruits, and vegetables. Food Safety and Inspection Service Information Office South Agriculture Building Independence Avenue S.W. Washington, DC 20250 (202) 720-8732 ADDITIONAL ORGANIZATIONS American Frozen Foods Institute 1764 Old Meadow Lane McLean, VA 22101 (703) 821-0770 American Institute of Baking 1213 Bakers Way Manhattan, Kansas 66502 (913) 537-4750 American Public Health Association (APHA) 1015 15th Street N.W. Washington, DC 20005 (202) 789-5600 Association of Food and Drug Officials (AFDO) P.O. Box 3425 York, PA 17402-3425 (717) 757-2888 Culinary Institute of America 433 Albany Street Hyde Park, NY 12538-1499 (914) 452-9600 Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association 1407 South Harrison Road East Lansing, MI 48823 (517) 353-5500 Food Marketing Institute (FMI) 800 Connecticut Avenue N.W. Washington, DC 20006 (202) 452-8444 International Council of Hotels and Restaurant Industry Educators th th 1200 17 . Street NW, 7 . Floor Washington, DC 20036 International Food Service Manufacturers Association 321 North Clark Street, Suite 2900 Chicago, IL 60610 (312) 644-8989 Milk Industry Foundation 888 16th. Street, N.W., 2nd. Floor Washington, DC 20006 (202) 296-4250 National Agricultural Chemical Association 1155 Fifteenth Street N.W., Suite 900 Washington, DC 20005 (202) 296-1585 NEHA Training LLC 720 South Colorado Boulevard, Suite 900-S Denver, CO 80246-1960 (303) 756-9090 National Food Processors Association 1401 New York Avenue NW Washington, DC 20005 National Livestock & Meat Board Consumer Information Department 444 North Michigan Avenue Chicago, IL 60611 (312) 467-5520 National Pest Control Association 8100 Oak Street Loring, VA 22027 (703) 573-8330 National Restaurant Association (NRA) 1200 17th Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20036-3097 1-800-424-5156 (202) 331-5900 The Education Foundation of the National Restaurant Association 250 South Wacker Drive, Suite 1400 Chicago, Ill 60606-5834 (800) 809-6032 ext 410 NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation) 3475 Plymouth Road Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (313) 769-8010 Shellfish Institute of North America 1525 Wilson Blvd., Suite 500 Arlington, VA 22209 (703) 524-8883 USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline Monday through Friday, 10:00 am to 4:00 pm ET (800) 535-4555 ...
View Full Document
- Spring '08