Name the major parts of the axial and appendicular skeletons and describe their relative functions.
The axial skeleton is formed from 80 bones divided into three major regions: the skull, vertebral
column, and thoracic cage. This portion of the skeleton forms the longitudinal axis of the body, supports
the head/neck/trunk, and protects the brain/spinal cord/organs in the thorax. The bones of the
appendicular skeleton are the remaining bones of the body and allow us to interact and manipulate our
environment and are appended to the axial skeleton.
Name, describe, and identify the skull bones. Identify their important markings.
Cranium–the brain’s protective helmet comprised of the following:
Frontal Bone–forms the anterior cranium and contains the supraorbital margins,
anterior cranial fossa, the supraorbital foramen, the glabella, and frontal sinuses.
Occipital Bone-forms the posterior wall and, internally, forms the posterior cranial
fossa. It also contains the foramen magnum occipital condyles, hypoglossal canal,
and external occipital protuberance.
Sphenoid Bone-spanning the width of the middle cranial fossa it contains the
sphenoid sinuses, sells turcica, hypophyseal fossa, the greater wings, lesser wings,
pterygoid processes, optic canals, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum,
foramen ovale, and foramen spinosum.
Ethmoid Bone-the delicate and complex ethmoid bone is formed by the paired
horizontal cribriform plates and contains the crista galli, perpendicular plate, lateral
mass, ethmoid sinuses, superior and middle nasal conchae, and orbital plates.
Parietal Bones-two curved rectangular bones and contain the four sutures; coronal,