Psych Exam 1 - PsychC.1,Exam1 19:27 Maturation:...

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Psych C. 1, Exam 1 19:27 Maturation : Developmental changes in the body or behavior that result from the aging process rather than from learning, injury, illness, or some other life experience Partly responsible for psychological changes such as our increasing ability to concentrate, solve problems, and understand another persons thoughts or feelings Learning The process through which our experiences produce relatively permanent changes in our feelings, thoughts, and behaviors We change in response to our environment Characteristics of Development A Continual and Cumulative Process Holistic Process o Physical, cognitive, and social components of self depend on changes taking place in other areas of development (all interrelated) Plasticity o The capacity for change in response to positive or negative life experiences Historical/Cultural Context o Each culture transmits a particular pattern of beliefs and values to its younger generations, which has an influence on the attitudes that individuals display o Development also influenced by societal changes (war) Reliable: yields consistent information over time and across observers Valid : measures what it is supposed to measure Instrument must be reliable before it can be valid Experimental Designs Permit a precise assessment of the cause-and-effect relationship that may exist between two variables Independent Variable : treatment given to participant in order to measure its impact on behavior
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Dependent Variable : Behavior that is measured (response to i.v) Confounding Variable: Some factor other than i.v. that could explain differences in performance on d.v. Experimental Control: experimenter must ensure that all other confounding variables that could affect the d.v. are controlled Random Assignment : each research participant has an equal probability of being exposed to each treatment Ecological Validity: findings of experiment apply to the real world Field Experiment: an experiment that takes place in a naturalistic setting Natural (or quasi-) Experiment : observe the consequences of a natural event that participants have experienced o Observe and record the apparent outcomes of a naturally happening event Cross- Sectional Designs A research design in which subjects from different age groups are studied at the same point in time Cohort : a group of people of the same age who are exposed to similar cultural environments and historical events as they are growing up Limitations: o Cohort Effects Involve different cohorts interpretive problem: age differences found may reflect other cultural or historical actors that distinguish members of different cohorts o Tells us nothing about the development of individuals bc each person is observed at only one point in time Longitudinal Designs The same participants are observed repeatedly over a period of time
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2011 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Psych Exam 1 - PsychC.1,Exam1 19:27 Maturation:...

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