Psych Notes exam 2 - PsychC.7:CognitiveDev:Piaget&Vygotsky...

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Psych C.7: Cognitive Dev.: Piaget & Vygotsky Exam 2 ‘Constructivist’ view of cognition: Constructivist: one who gains knowledge by acting or otherwise operating on objects and events to discover their properties Children’s constructions or reality depend on the knowledge they have available The Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2 yrs) Development of Problem-solving abilities Reflex Activity (Birth-1 month) o 1 st substage of sensorimotor stage; infants actions are confined to exercising innate reflexes, assimilating new objects into these reflexive schemes, and accommodating their reflexes to these novel objects Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months) o First nonreflexive schemes, infants discover that various responses that they can control are satisfying & worth repeating o Primary circular reactions = simple repetitive acts Primary b/c 1 st motor habits; circular b/c repetitive Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months) o Discover they can make interesting things happen to objects beyond their own bodies o Secondary circular reactions repeated for their pleasure o Not fully intentional response bc discovered by chance Coordination of Secondary Reactions (8-12 months) o Truly planful responding; infants begin to coordinate two or more actions to achieve simple objectives Ex: uses one hand to life a pillow and other to grab toy o Earliest form of goal-directed behavior Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months)
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o Infants begin to actively experiment with objects and try to invent new methods of solving problems or reproducing interesting results Symbolic Problem Solving (18- 24 months) o Infants begin to internalize their behavioral schemes to construct mental symbols (images) to guide future conduct o Inner experimentation : the ability to solve simple problems on a symbolic level w/o having to rely on trial-and-error Why infants know more about objects than Piaget assumed Infants performance in Baillargeon’s experiment in the ‘impossible event’ condition reflects a knowledge of permanence of objects, and a knowledge that one solid object cannot pass through another 8-12 month olds who commit A-not-B errors will often remember that an object has been hidden at a new location b BUT they lack the ability to inhibit the tendency to search where they previously found the object o Changes in the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex in 12 month olds greater control of muscles responses can inhibit impulse to search where they know it isn’t there Belief- Desire Reasoning The process whereby we explain and predict what people do based on what we understand their desires and beliefs to be Imaginary Audience (A result of adolescent egocentrism); Adolescents believe that everyone around them is as interested in their thoughts and behaviors as they are themselves Piaget’s 6 contributions to developmental psychology 1. Founded discipline of Cognitive Development 2.
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